Horizon View Load Balancing – NetScaler 11.1

Last Modified: Sep 2, 2018 @ 7:52 am

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Use this procedure to load balance Horizon View Connection Servers, Horizon View Security Servers, and/or VMware Unified Access Gateway (formerly known as Access Point).

Overview

Servers/Appliances

There are two VMware-provided remote access solutions for Horizon View:

Unified Access Gateways are preferred over Security Servers for the following reasons:

  • No need to pair with internal Connection Servers. This simplifies the configuration.
  • Linux appliance instead of Windows server.
  • Authentication can be offloaded to the Unified Access Gateway. This includes: Smart Cards, RSA, and RADIUS.
  • Blast Extreme Adaptive Transport (BEAT) in Horizon 7.1 and newer only works with Unified Access Gateway 2.9 and newer. Security Server and older Access Points don’t work.

If you are using Unified Access Gateways instead of Security Servers, then you’ll have the following machines in a highly available Horizon infrastructure:

  • Two Internal Connection Servers – these need to be load balanced on an internal VIP. Internal users connect to the internal VIP.
  • Two DMZ Unified Access Gateway (Access Point) appliances – these need to be load balanced on a DMZ VIP. External users connect to the DMZ VIP. Unified Access Gateways connect to the internal VIP.

With Security Servers instead of Unified Access Gateways, a typical Horizon Infrastructure will have at least six connection servers:

  • Two Internal Connection Servers – these need to be load balanced on an internal VIP. Internal users connect to the internal VIP.
  • Two DMZ Security Servers – these need to be load balanced on a DMZ VIP. External users connect to the DMZ VIP. Each Security Servers connects directly to a “paired” Connection Servers.
  • The DMZ Security Servers are paired with two additional internal “paired” Connection Servers. There is no need to load balance the internal Paired Connection Servers. However, we do need to monitor them.

Since Security Servers are paired with Connection Servers, you need to configure load balancing monitors to disable the Security Server if the paired Connection Server is not accessible. Since Unified Access Gateways are not paired with Connection Servers, you don’t need this special monitoring configuration.

Protocols/Ports

Horizon 7 introduces a new Blast Extreme protocol. VMware Technical White Paper Blast Extreme Display Protocol in Horizon 7.

For VMware Unified Access Gateway, Blast Extreme only needs TCP and UDP 443 only. HTML Access in Horizon 7 also uses Blast Extreme protocol (TCP/UDP 443). If you use VMware Unified Access Gateway with Blast Extreme exclusively, then the number of ports is minimal, and load balancing configuration is simplified. Here are typical load balancing port requirements for Unified Access Gateway with Blast Extreme only:

  • TCP 443
  • UDP 443

Note: UDP is disabled by default, but it can be enabled using a Blast GPO setting.

For View Security Servers, and Blast Extreme protocol only, then the following load balancing ports are needed. Note: Unified Access Gateway supports 443 port sharing, but Security Servers do not.

  • TCP 443
  • TCP 8443
  • UDP 8443

Note: UDP is disabled by default, but it can be enabled using a Blast GPO setting.

For all other configurations that don’t use Blast Extreme (PCoIP, HTML Blast), the following ports must be load balanced:

  • TCP 443
  • TCP 4172
  • UDP 4172
  • TCP 8443

If you are load balancing internal Connection Servers only, and if the Secure Gateways are disabled, then the only port you need to load balance is:

  • TCP 443

VMware requires server persistence to apply across multiple load balanced port numbers. If a user is load balanced to a particular View Connection Server on TCP 443, then the connection on UDP 4172 must go the same View Connection Server. Normally load balancing persistence only applies to a single port number, so whatever sever was selected on 443 won’t be considered for the 4172 connection. But in NetScaler, you can configure a Persistency Group to use a single persistency across multiple load balancing vServers (different port numbers). In F5, you configure Match Across.

Also see Load Balancing with Access Point by Mark Benson at VMware Communities.

This topic primarily focuses on NetScaler GUI configuration. Alternatively, you can skip directly to the CLI commands.

Horizon 7 Origin Check

Horizon 7 might not accept your load balanced DNS name unless it’s the same name configured in the Connection Server’s Secure Tunnel configuration. You can change this behavior by disabling Origin Check as detailed at VMware 2144768 Accessing the Horizon View Administrator page displays a blank error window in Horizon 7. Note: this configuration is almost mandatory for Unified Access Gateways, since Secure Tunnel is disabled on the Connection Servers.

Load Balancing Monitors

Users connect to Connection Servers, Security Servers, and Unified Access Gateway appliances on multiple ports: TCP 443, UDP 443, TCP 8443, UDP 8443, TCP 4172, and UDP 4172. Users will initially connect to TCP port 443, and then be redirected to one of the other ports on the same server/appliance initially used for the TCP 443 connection. If TCP 443 is up, but UDP 4172 is down on the same server/appliance, then you probably wan’t to take TCP 443 down too. To facilitate this, create a monitor for each of the ports, and bind all of the monitors to the TCP 443 service. If any of the monitors goes down, then TCP 443 is also taken down.

SSL (443) Monitor

  1. On the left, expand Traffic Management, expand Load Balancing, and click Monitors.
  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Name it Horizon-SSL or similar.
  4. Change the Type drop-down to HTTP-ECV.
  5. On the Standard Parameters tab, in the Destination Port field, enter 443.
  6. Scroll down and check the box next to Secure.
  7. On the Special Parameters tab, in the Send String section, enter GET /broker/xml
  8. In the Receive String section, enter clientlaunch-default
  9. Scroll down, and click Create.

PCoIP (4172) Monitor

  1. On the right, click Add.
  2. Name it Horizon-PCoIP or similar.
  3. Change the Type drop-down to TCP.
  4. On the Standard Parameters tab, in the Destination Port field, enter 4172.
  5. Scroll down and click Create.

Blast (8443) Monitor

  1. On the right, click Add.
  2. Name it Horizon-Blast or similar.
  3. Change the Type drop-down to TCP.
  4. On the Standard Parameters tab, in the Destination Port field, enter 8443.
  5. Scroll down and click Create.

Paired Connection Server Monitor

Note: the steps in this section do not apply to Unified Access Gateways or internal Connection Servers.

View Security Servers are paired with View Connection Servers. If the paired View Connection Server is down, then we should probably stop sending users to the corresponding View Security Server. Let’s create a monitor that has a specific IP address in it.

  1. Click the ellipsis next to the existing Horizon-SSL monitor, and click Add.
  2. Normally a monitor does not have any Destination IP defined, which means it uses the IP address of the service that it is bound to. However, we intend to bind this monitor to the View Security Server, but we need it to monitor the paired View Connection Server, which is a different IP address. Type in the IP address of the paired View Connection Server. Then rename the monitor so it includes the paired View Connection Server name. Click Create.
  3. Since we are embedding an IP address into the monitor, you have to create a separate monitor for each paired Connection Server IP. Create another monitor. Specify the IP of the other paired Connection Server. Click Create.

Load Balancing Servers

Create Server Objects for the DMZ Security Servers, DMZ Unified Access Gateway appliances, and the internal non-paired Connection Servers. Do not create Server Objects for the Paired Connection Servers.

  1. On the left, expand Traffic Management, expand Load Balancing, and click Servers.
  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Enter a descriptive server name, usually it matches the actual server name.
  4. Enter the IP address of the Unified Access Gateway, Horizon Connection Server, or Horizon Security Server.
  5. Enter comments to describe the server. Click Create.
  6. Continue adding Unified Access Gateways, Horizon Connection Servers, and/or Horizon Security Servers.

Load Balancing Services

Overview

Services vs Service Groups:

  • For Security Servers, if the paired Connection Server is down, then we need the Security Server to go down too. One of the monitors bound to the Security Server contains the IP address of the paired Connection Server. Since each Security Server is paired with a different Connection Server, that means each Security Server will have a unique monitoring configuration. This precludes us from adding multiple Security Servers to a single Service Group since you can only have one monitor configuration for the entire Service Group. Instead, create separate Services (multiple port numbers) for each Security Server.
    • Individual services per server are only needed for TCP 443. The other ports can be service groups.
  • For Unified Access Gateways, there is no special monitoring configuration, and thus these appliances could be added to Service Groups (one for each port number).
  • For internal Connection Servers (non-paired), there is no special monitoring configuration, and thus these appliances could be added to one Service Group. Internal Connection Servers usually only need TCP 443 load balanced.

For Internal Connection Servers (not the paired servers), load balancing monitoring is very simple:

  • Create a service group for SSL 443.
  • To verify server availability, monitor port TCP 443 on the same server.
  • If tunneling is disabled, then internal users connect directly to View Agents and UDP/TCP 4172 and TCP 8443 are not used on Internal Connection Servers. There’s no need to create service groups and monitors for these ports.

Security Servers and Unified Access Gateway appliances are more complex:

  • For Blast Extreme protocol through Unified Access Gateways, if UDP is not enabled, then you only need services for TCP 443. If UDP is enabled, then you also need load balancing services for UDP 443.
  • For Blast Extreme protocol through View Security Servers, if UDP is not enabled, then you only need services for TCP 443 and TCP 8443. If UDP is enabled, then you also need load balancing services for UDP 8443.
  • For PCoIP protocol, all traffic initially connects on TCP 443. The Horizon clients then connect to UDP 4172 on the same Security Server or Unified Access Gateway. If 4172 is down, then 443 should be taken down. Bind monitors for each port to the TCP 443 service. If any of the monitors fails (e.g. 4172 is down), then TCP 443 is taken down and NetScaler will no longer forward traffic to TCP 443 on that particular server/appliance.
  • Each View Security Server is paired with an internal View Connection Server. If the internal Connection Server is down then the Security Server should be taken down. This requires custom monitors for each Security Server. This is not a problem for Unified Access Gateways.

Load Balancing Services Configuration Summary

The summaries are split into PCoIP vs Blast Extreme, and View Security Servers vs Unified Access Gateways. If you are using both PCoIP and Blast Extreme, combine their configurations.

Two Unified Access Gateways for Blast Extreme: if they are named UAG01 and UAG02, the load balancing service configuration for Blast Extreme in Horizon 7 (no PCoIP) is summarized as follows (scroll down for detailed configuration):

  • Service Group, Protocol = SSL_BRIDGE
    • Members = UAG01 and UAG02
    • Port = 443
    • Monitor = SSL (443)
  • Service Group, Protocol = UDP (this service group is only needed if Blast Extreme UDP is enabled)
    • Members = UAG01 and UAG02
    • Port = 443
    • Monitor = SSL (443) or ping

Two Unified Access Gateways for PCoIP protocol: if they are named UAG01 and UAG02, the load balancing service configuration for PCoIP is summarized as follows (scroll down for detailed configuration):

  • Service Group, Protocol = SSL_BRIDGE
    • Members = UAG01 and UAG02
    • Port = 443
    • Monitor = SSL (443)
  • Service Group, Protocol = TCP
    • Members = UAG01 and UAG02
    • Port = 4172
    • Monitor = PCoIP (TCP 4172)
  • Service Group, Protocol = UDP
    • Members = UAG01 and UAG02
    • Port = 4172
    • Monitor = PCoIP (TCP 4172)
  • Service Group, Protocol = SSL_BRIDGE
    • Members = UAG01 and UAG02
    • Port = 8443
    • Monitor = Blast (8443)
  • Service Group, Portocol = UDP
    • Members = UAG01 and UAG02
    • Port = 8443
    • Monitor = Blast (8443)

Two Security Servers for Blast Extreme: if they are named VSS01 and VSS02, the load balancing service configuration for Blast Extreme in Horizon 7 (no PCoIP) is summarized as follows (scroll down for detailed configuration):

  • Service Group, Protocol = SSL_BRIDGE
    • Members = VSS01 and VSS02
    • Port = 443
    • Monitor = SSL (443)
  • Service Group, Protocol = SSL_BRIDGE
    • Members = VSS01 and VSS02
    • Port = 8443
    • Monitor = Blast (8443)
  • Service Group, Protocol = UDP (this service group is only needed if Blast Extreme UDP is enabled)
    • Members = VSS01 and VSS02
    • Port = 8443
    • Monitor = SSL (443) or ping

Two View Security Servers with PCoIP: If the View Security Servers are named VSS01 and VSS02, the load balancing service configuration for PCoIP is summarized as follows (scroll down for detailed configuration):

  • Server = VSS01, Protocol = SSL_BRIDGE, Port = 443
    • Monitors = PCoIP (TCP 4172), SSL (443), and Blast (8443)
    • Monitor = SSL (443) for paired View Connection Server VCS01.
  • Server = VSS02, Protocol = SSL_BRIDGE, Port = 443
    • Monitors = PCoIP (TCP 4172), SSL (443), and Blast (8443)
    • Monitor = SSL (443) for paired View Connection Server VCS02.
  • Service Group, Protocol = UDP
    • Members = VSS01 and VSS02
    • Port = 443
    • Monitor = SSL (443) or ping
  • Service Group, Protocol = TCP
    • Members = VSS01 and VSS02
    • Port = 4172
    • Monitor = PCoIP (TCP 4172)
  • Service Group, Protocol = UDP
    • Members = VSS01 and VSS02
    • Port = 4172
    • Monitor = PCoIP (TCP 4172)
  • Service Group, Protocol = SSL_BRIDGE
    • Members = VSS01 and VSS02
    • Port = 8443
    • Monitor = Blast (8443)
  • Service Group, Portocol = UDP
    • Members = VSS01 and VSS02
    • Port = 8443
    • Monitor = Blast (8443)

TCP 443 Load Balancing Services

Here are general instructions for the TCP 443 Horizon load balancing services. These instructions detail the more complicated Security Server configuration, since each Security Server needs to monitor its paired Connection Servers. If you are load balancing Unified Access Gateway or internal Connection Servers, you could configure a Service Group instead of individual services. See the above configuration summaries for your specific configuration.

  1. On the left, expand Traffic Management, expand Load Balancing, and click Services.
  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Give the Service a descriptive name (e.g. svc-VSS01-SSL).
  4. Change the selection to Existing Server and select the Unified Access Gateway, Security Server or internal (non-paired) Connection Server you created earlier.
  5. Change the Protocol to SSL_BRIDGE, and click OK.
  6. On the left, in the Monitors section, click where it says 1 Service to Load Balancing Monitor Binding.
  7. Ignore the current monitor, and click Add Binding.
  8. Click the arrow next to Click to select.
  9. Select the Horizon-SSL monitor, and click Select.
  10. Then click Bind.
  11. If you are load balancing PCoIP through a View Security Server or Unified Access Gateway, add monitors for PCoIP Secure Gateway (4172) and Blast Secure Gateway (8443) too. If 4172 or 8443 fails, then 443 needs to be marked DOWN.

  12. If this is a Security Server, also add a monitor that has the IP address of the paired Connection Server. If the paired Connection Server is down, then the Security Server needs to marked as DOWN so NetScaler needs to stop sending connections to this Security Server.
  13. The Last Response should indicate Success. If you bound multiple monitors to the Service, then the member will only be UP if all monitors succeed. There’s a refresh button on the top-right. Click Close when done.
  14. Then click Done.
  15. Selec the first service, and click Add.
  16. Change the name to match the second Horizon Server or Unified Access Gateway.
  17. Select Existing Server and use the Server drop-down to select to the second Horizon Server.
  18. The remaining configuration is identical to the first server. Click OK.
  19. You will need to configure the monitors again. They will be identical to the first server except for the monitoring of the paired View Connection Server. Click Done when done.

Other Ports Load Balancing Services

Here are general instructions for the remaining Horizon load balancing services. These instructions use Service Groups, but you could just as easily add Services instead. See the above summaries for your specific configuration.

  1. On the left, go to Traffic Mgmt > Load Balancing > Service Groups.
  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Name it svcgrp-Horizon-UDP443 or similar. UDP 443 is for Blast Extreme in Horizon 7 through Unified Access Gateways. If View Security Servers, the name should be svcgrp-Horizon-UDP8443.
  4. Change the Protocol to UDP. Click OK.
  5. Click where it says No Service Group Member.
  6. Change the selection to Server Based and then click Click to select.
  7. Select your multiple Security Servers or multiple Unified Access Gateways, and click Select.
  8. If Unified Access Gateways, enter 443 as the Port. If View Security Servers, enter 8443 as the port. Click Create.
  9. Click OK.
  10. On the right, in the Advanced Settings column, add the Monitors section.
  11. Click where it says No Service Group to Monitor Binding.
  12. Click to select.
  13. Select the Horizon-SSL monitor, click Select, and then click Bind.
  14. Click Done.
  15. Add another Service Group for PCoIP on TCP 4172.
    1. Name = svcgrp-Horizon-PCoIPTCP or similar.
    2. Protocol = TCP

    3. Members = multiple Security Servers or multiple Unified Access Gateways.
    4. Port = 4172.
    5. Monitors = Horizon-PCoIP. You can add the other monitors if desired.
  16. Add another Service Group for PCoIP on UDP 4172.
    1. Name = svcgrp-Horizon-PCoIPUDP or similar.
    2. Protocol = UDP

    3. Members = multiple Security Servers or multiple Unified Access Gateways
    4. Port = 4172.
    5. Monitors = Horizon-PCoIP. You can add the other monitors if desired.
  17. Add another Service Group for SSL_BRIDGE 8443.
    1. Name = svcgrp-Horizon-TCP8443 or similar.
    2. Protocol = SSL_BRIDGE

    3. Members = multiple Security Servers or multiple Unified Access Gateways
    4. Port = 8443.
    5. Monitors = Horizon-Blast. You can add the other monitors if desired.
  18. If you haven’t done this already, add another Service Group for UDP 8443 (Blast Extreme in Horizon 7).
    1. Name = svcgrp-Horizon-UDP8443 or similar.
    2. Protocol = UDP
    3. Members = multiple Security Servers or multiple Unified Access Gateways
    4. Port = 8443.
    5. Monitors = Horizon-Blast. You can add the other monitors if desired.
  19. The five service groups should look something like this:

Load Balancing Virtual Servers

Create separate load balancing vServers for internal and DMZ.

  • Internal VIP load balances the non-paired Internal Connections Servers. Unified Access Gateway appliances also use this VIP to access the internal Connection Servers.
  • DMZ VIP load balances the Security Servers or Unified Access Gateway appliances.

The paired View Connection Servers do not need to be load balanced.

For the internal Connection Servers you only need a load balancer for SSL_BRIDGE 443. If tunneling is disabled, then you don’t need load balancers for the other ports (UDP/TCP 4172 and SSL_BRIDGE 8443).

However, Security Servers and Unified Access Gateways listen on more ports so you will need separate load balancers for each port number. Here is a summary of their Virtual Servers, all listening on the same IP address. Depending on the configured protocol, you might not need all of these Virtual Servers.

  • Virtual Server on SSL_BRIDGE 443 – bind both Horizon SSL_BRIDGE 443 Services.
  • Virtual Server on UDP 443 (Horizon 7) – bind the UDP 443 service group.
  • Virtual Server on UDP 4172 – bind the PCoIPUDP service group.
  • Virtual Server on TCP 4172 – bind the PCoIPTCP service group.
  • Virtual Server on SSL_BRIDGE 8443 – bind the SSL_BRIDGE 8443 service group.
  • Virtual Server on UDP 8443 (Horizon 7) – bind the UDP 8443 service group.

Do the following to create the Virtual Servers:

  1. On the left, under Traffic Management > Load Balancing, click Virtual Servers.

  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Name it lbvip-Horizon-SSL or similar.
  4. Change the Protocol to SSL_BRIDGE.
  5. Specify a new VIP. This one VIP will be used for all of the Virtual Servers.
  6. Enter 443 as the Port.
  7. Click OK.
  8. On the left, in the Services and Service Groups section, click where it says No Load Balancing Virtual Server Service Binding.
  9. Click the arrow next to Click to select.
  10. Select the two Horizon-SSL Services and click Select.
  11. Click Bind.
  12. Click Continue.
  13. Then click Done. Persistency will be configured later.
  14. If this is Horizon 7, and if this is an Unified Access Gateway, then create another Load Balancing Virtual Server for UDP 443:
    1. Same VIP as the TCP 443 Load Balancer.
    2. Protocol = UDP, Port = 443
    3. Service Group Binding = the UDP 443 Service Group

  15. If this is a Security Server or Unified Access Gateway, then create another Load Balancing Virtual Server for PCoIP UDP 4172:
    1. Same VIP as the 443 Load Balancer.
    2. Protocol = UDP, Port = 4172
    3. Service Group Binding = the PCoIP UDP Service Group.

  16. If this is a Security Server or Unified Access Gateway, then create another Load Balancing Virtual Server for PCoIP TCP 4172:
    1. Same VIP as the 443 Load Balancer.
    2. Protocol = TCP, Port = 4172
    3. Service Group Binding = the PCoIP TCP Service Group

  17. If this is a Security Server or Unified Access Gateway, then create another Load Balancing Virtual Server for SSL_BRIDGE 8443:
    1. Same VIP as the 443 Load Balancer.
    2. Protocol = SSL_BRIDGE, Port = 8443
    3. Service Group Binding = the TCP 8443 SSL_BRIDGE Service Group

  18. If this is a Security Server or Unified Access Gateway, then create another Load Balancing Virtual Server for UDP 8443:
    1. Same VIP as the 443 Load Balancer.
    2. Protocol = UDP, Port = 8443
    3. Service Group Binding = the UDP 8443 Service Group

  19. This gives you six Virtual Servers on the same VIP, but different protocols and port numbers.

Persistency Group

For Security Servers and Unified Access Gateways, users will first connect to SSL_BRIDGE 443 and be load balanced. Subsequent connections to the other port numbers must go to the same load balanced server. Create a Persistency Group to facilitate this.

For internal View Connection Servers, then you probably only have one SSL_BRIDGE load balancer for those servers, and thus you could configure persistence directly on that one load balancing vServer instead of creating a Persistency Group. However, since the Security Servers and Unified Access Gateways have multiple load balancing vServers on different ports, then you need to bind them together into a Persistency Group.

  1. On the left, under Traffic Management, expand Load Balancing, and click Persistency Groups.
  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Give the Persistency Group a name (e.g. Horizon).
  4. Change the Persistence to SOURCEIP.
  5. Enter a timeout that is equal to or greater than the timeout in Horizon View Administrator, which defaults to 10 hours (600 minutes).
  6. In the Virtual Server Name section, click Add.
  7. Move all six Security Server / Unified Access Gateway Load Balancing Virtual Servers to the right. Click Create.

CLI Commands

Here’s a list of CLI commands for the most basic configuration of two Access Points with Blast Extreme only (no PCoIP):

add server UAG01 10.2.2.187
add server UAG02 10.2.2.24
add lb monitor Horizon-SSL HTTP-ECV -send "GET /broker/xml" -recv clientlaunch-default -secure YES
add serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-SSL SSL_BRIDGE
add serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-UDP443 UDP
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-SSL UAG01 443
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-SSL UAG02 443
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-SSL -monitorName Horizon-SSL
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-UDP443 UAG01 443
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-UDP443 UAG02 443
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-UDP443 -monitorName Horizon-SSL
add lb vserver lbvip-Horizon-SSL SSL_BRIDGE 10.2.2.204 443
add lb vserver lbvip-Horizon-UDP443 UDP 10.2.2.204 443
bind lb vserver lbvip-Horizon-SSL svcgrp-Horizon-SSL
bind lb vserver lbvip-Horizon-UDP443 svcgrp-Horizon-UDP443
bind lb group Horizon lbvip-Horizon-SSL
bind lb group Horizon lbvip-Horizon-UDP443
set lb group Horizon -persistenceType SOURCEIP -timeout 600

Here’s a list of CLI commands for the more complicated Security Server configuration:

add server VSS01 10.2.2.187
add server VSS02 10.2.2.24
add lb monitor Horizon-PCoIP TCP -destPort 4172
add lb monitor Horizon-Blast TCP -destPort 8443
add lb monitor Horizon-SSL HTTP-ECV -send "GET /broker/xml" -recv clientlaunch-default -secure YES
add lb monitor Horizon-SSL-VCS01 HTTP-ECV -send "GET /broker/xml" -recv clientlaunch-default -destIP 10.2.2.19 -destPort 443 -secure YES
add lb monitor Horizon-SSL-VCS02 HTTP-ECV -send "GET /broker/xml" -recv clientlaunch-default -destIP 10.2.2.20 -destPort 443 -secure YES
add service svc-VSS01-SSL VSS01 SSL_BRIDGE 443
add service svc-VSS02-SSL VSS02 SSL_BRIDGE 443
bind service svc-VSS02-SSL -monitorName Horizon-SSL-VCS02
bind service svc-VSS02-SSL -monitorName Horizon-SSL
bind service svc-VSS02-SSL -monitorName Horizon-Blast
bind service svc-VSS02-SSL -monitorName Horizon-PCoIP
bind service svc-VSS01-SSL -monitorName Horizon-SSL-VCS01
bind service svc-VSS01-SSL -monitorName Horizon-Blast
bind service svc-VSS01-SSL -monitorName Horizon-PCoIP
bind service svc-VSS01-SSL -monitorName Horizon-SSL
add serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-UDP443 UDP
add serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-PCoIPTCP TCP
add serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-PCoIPUDP UDP
add serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-TCP8443 SSL_BRIDGE
add serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-UDP8443 UDP
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-UDP443 VSS01 443
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-UDP443 VSS02 443
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-UDP443 -monitorName Horizon-SSL
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-PCoIPTCP VSS01 4172
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-PCoIPTCP VSS02 4172
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-PCoIPTCP -monitorName Horizon-PCoIP
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-PCoIPUDP VSS01 4172
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-PCoIPUDP VSS02 4172
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-PCoIPUDP -monitorName Horizon-PCoIP
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-TCP8443 VSS01 8443
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-TCP8443 VSS02 8443
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-TCP8443 -monitorName Horizon-Blast
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-UDP8443 VSS01 8443
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-UDP8443 VSS02 8443
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Horizon-UDP8443 -monitorName Horizon-Blast
add lb vserver lbvip-Horizon-SSL SSL_BRIDGE 10.2.2.204 443
add lb vserver lbvip-Horizon-UDP443 UDP 10.2.2.204 443
add lb vserver lbvip-Horizon-PCoIPUDP UDP 10.2.2.204 4172
add lb vserver lbvip-Horizon-PCoIPTCP TCP 10.2.2.204 1472
add lb vserver lbvip-Horizon-8443TCP SSL_BRIDGE 10.2.2.204 8443
add lb vserver lbvip-Horizon-8443UDP UDP 10.2.2.204 8443
bind lb vserver lbvip-Horizon-SSL svc-VSS01-SSL
bind lb vserver lbvip-Horizon-SSL svc-VSS02-SSL
bind lb vserver lbvip-Horizon-UDP443 svcgrp-Horizon-UDP443
bind lb vserver lbvip-Horizon-PCoIPTCP svcgrp-Horizon-PCoIPTCP
bind lb vserver lbvip-Horizon-PCoIPUDP svcgrp-Horizon-PCoIPUDP
bind lb vserver lbvip-Horizon-8443TCP svcgrp-Horizon-TCP8443
bind lb vserver lbvip-Horizon-8443UDP svcgrp-Horizon-UDP8443
bind lb group Horizon lbvip-Horizon-SSL
bind lb group Horizon lbvip-Horizon-UDP443
bind lb group Horizon lbvip-Horizon-PCoIPUDP
bind lb group Horizon lbvip-Horizon-PCoIPTCP
bind lb group Horizon lbvip-Horizon-8443TCP
bind lb group Horizon lbvip-Horizon-8443UDP
set lb group Horizon -persistenceType SOURCEIP -timeout 600

Horizon View Configuration – Security Servers

This section is not needed for Unified Access Gateways. For Unified Access Gateways, the secure gateways should be disabled, not enabled.

  1. On the Security Servers (or Connection Servers), request a certificate that matches the FQDN that resolves to the Load Balancing VIP.
  2. Make sure the private key is exportable.
  3. Set the Friendly Name to vdm and restart the View Security Server services.
  4. In View Administrator, go to View Configuration > Servers.
  5. On the right, switch to the Security Servers tab.
  6. Highlight a server and click Edit.
  7. Change the URLs to the FQDN that resolves to the load balancing VIP.
  8. Change the PCoIP URL to the VIP. For View Security Servers, this is typically a public IP that is NAT’d to the DMZ Load Balancing VIP.

Director Load Balancing – NetScaler 11.1

Last Modified: Dec 20, 2018 @ 9:53 am

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Monitor

  1. On the left, expand Traffic Management, expand Load Balancing, and click Monitors.
  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Name it Director or similar.
  4. Change the Type drop-down to HTTP.
  5. If you will use SSL to communicate with the Director servers, then scroll down and check the box next to Secure.
  6. Switch to the Special Parameters tab.
  7. In the HTTP Request field, enter GET /Director/LogOn.aspx?cc=true
  8. If Single Sign-on is enabled on Director, then you might have to add 302 as a Response Code.
  9. Click Create.

Servers

  1. On the left, expand Traffic Management, expand Load Balancing, and click Servers.
  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Enter a descriptive server name. Usually it matches the actual server name.
  4. Enter the IP address of the server.
  5. Enter comments to describe the server. Click Create.
  6. Continue adding Director servers.

Service Group

  1. On the left, expand Traffic Management, expand Load Balancing, and click Service Groups.

  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Give the Service Group a descriptive name (e.g. svcgrp-Director-SSL).
  4. Change the Protocol to HTTP or SSL. If the protocol is SSL, ensure the Director Monitor has Secure enabled.
  5. Scroll down, and click OK.
  6. Click where it says No Service Group Member.
  7. If you did not previously create server objects, then enter the IP address of a Director Server. If you previously created server objects, then change the selection to Server Based, and select the server objects.
  8. Enter 80 or 443 as the port. Then click Create.
  9. Click OK.
  10. On the right, under Advanced Settings, click Monitors.
  11. On the left, in the Monitors section, click where it says No Service Group to Monitor Binding.
  12. Click the arrow next to Click to select.
  13. Select the Director monitor, and click Select.
  14. Then click Bind.
  15. To verify that the monitor is working, on the left, in the Service Group Members section, click the Service Group Members line.
  16. Highlight a member, and click Monitor Details.
  17. The Last Response should be Success – HTTP response code 200 received. Click Close twice.
  18. Then click Done.

Responder

Create a Responder policy to redirect users from the root page to /Director.

  1. Go to AppExpert > Responder, and enable the feature if it isn’t already enabled.
  2. Go to AppExpert > Responder > Actions.
  3. On the right, click Add.
  4. Give the Action a name (e.g. Director_Redirect).
  5. Change the Type to Redirect.
  6. In the Expression box, enter "/Director", including the quotes.
  7. Click Create.
  8. Go to AppExpert > Responder > Policies.
  9. On the right, click Add.
  10. Give the Policy a name (e.g. Director_Redirect).
  11. Select the previously created Action.
  12. In the Expression box, enter HTTP.REQ.URL.PATH.EQ("/")
  13. Click Create.

Load Balancing Virtual Server

  1. Create or install a certificate that will be used by the SSL Virtual Server. This certificate must match the DNS name for the load balanced Director servers.
  2. On the left, under Traffic Management > Load Balancing, click Virtual Servers.
  3. On the right, click Add.
  4. Name it lbvip-Director-SSL or similar.
  5. Change the Protocol to SSL.
  6. Specify a new internal VIP.
  7. Enter 443 as the Port.
  8. Click OK.
  9. On the left, in the Services and Service section, click where it says No Load Balancing Virtual Server ServiceGroup Binding.
  10. Click the arrow next to Click to select.
  11. Select your Director Service Group, and click Select.
  12. Click Bind.
  13. Click Continue.
  14. Click where it says No Server Certificate.
  15. Click the arrow next to Click to select.
  16. Select the certificate for this Director Load Balancing Virtual Server, and click Select.
  17. Click Bind.
  18. Click Continue.
  19. On the right, in the Advanced Settings column, click Persistence.
  20. In the Persistence section, do the following:
    1. Select COOKIEINSERT persistence.
    2. Set the Time-out to 0 minutes. This makes it a session cookie.
    3. Set the Backup Persistence to SOURCEIP.
    4. Set the Backup Time-out to match the timeout of Director. The default timeout for Director is 245 minutes.
    5. The IPv4 Netmask should default to 32 bits.
  21. Click OK.
  22. On the right, in the Advanced Settings section, add the Policies section.
  23. On the left, in the Policies section, click the plus icon.
  24. Select Responder in the Choose Policy drop-down, and click Continue.
  25. Select the previously created Director_Redirect policy, and click Bind.
  26. If you haven’t enabled the Default SSL Profile, then perform other normal SSL configuration including: disable SSLv3, bind a Modern Cipher Group, and enable Strict Transport Security.
    bind ssl vserver MyvServer -certkeyName MyCert
    
    set ssl vserver MyvServer -ssl3 DISABLED -tls11 ENABLED -tls12 ENABLED
    
    unbind ssl vserver MyvServer -cipherName ALL
    
    bind ssl vserver MyvServer -cipherName Modern
    
    bind ssl vserver MyvServer -eccCurveName ALL
    
    bind lb vserver MyvServer -policyName insert_STS_header -priority 100 -gotoPriorityExpression END -type RESPONSE

SSL Redirect

Do one of the following to configure a redirect from HTTP to HTTPS:

SSL Warning

  1. If you are doing SSL Offload (SSL on front end, HTTP on back end), when connecting to Director, it might complain about “You are not using a secure connection”.
  2. To turn off this warning, login to the Director servers, and run IIS Manager.
  3. On the left, navigate to Server > Sites > Default Web Site > Director.
  4. In the middle, double-click Application Settings.
  5. Change UI.EnableSslCheck to false.

CLI Commands

Here is a list of NetScaler CLI commands for Director Load Balancing:

add server Director01 10.2.2.18
add server Director02 10.2.2.100
add server 127.0.0.1 127.0.0.1
add service AlwaysUp 127.0.0.1 HTTP 80
add serviceGroup svcgrp-Director-HTTP HTTP
add ssl certKey wildcom -cert WildcardCorpCom_pem -key WildcardCorpCom_pem
add lb vserver lbvip-Director-SSL SSL 10.2.2.210 443 -persistenceType SOURCEIP -timeout 245
add lb vserver lbvip-Director-HTTP-SSLRedirect HTTP 10.2.2.210 80 -persistenceType NONE
add responder action Director_Redirect redirect "\"/Director\"" -responseStatusCode 302
add responder action http_to_ssl_redirect_responderact redirect "\"https://\" + HTTP.REQ.HOSTNAME.HTTP_URL_SAFE + HTTP.REQ.URL.PATH_AND_QUERY.HTTP_URL_SAFE" -responseStatusCode 302
add responder policy Director_Redirect "http.REQ.URL.PATH.EQ(\"/\")" Director_Redirect
add responder policy http_to_ssl_redirect_responderpol HTTP.REQ.IS_VALID http_to_ssl_redirect_responderact
bind lb vserver lbvip-Director-HTTP-SSLRedirect AlwaysUp
bind lb vserver lbvip-Director-SSL svcgrp-Director-SSL
bind lb vserver lbvip-Director-SSL -policyName Director_Redirect -priority 100 -gotoPriorityExpression END -type REQUEST
bind lb vserver lbvip-Director-HTTP-SSLRedirect -policyName http_to_ssl_redirect_responderpol -priority 100 -gotoPriorityExpression END -type REQUEST
add lb monitor Director HTTP -respCode 200 -httpRequest "GET /Director/LogOn.aspx?cc=true" -LRTM DISABLED -secure YES
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Director-SSL Director01 443
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Director-SSL Director02 443
bind serviceGroup svcgrp-Director-SSL -monitorName Director
set ssl serviceGroup svcgrp-Director-SSL -tls11 DISABLED -tls12 DISABLED
bind ssl vserver lbvip-Director-SSL -certkeyName wildcom
bind ssl vserver lbvip-Director-SSL -eccCurveName P_256
bind ssl vserver lbvip-Director-SSL -eccCurveName P_384
bind ssl vserver lbvip-Director-SSL -eccCurveName P_224
bind ssl vserver lbvip-Director-SSL -eccCurveName P_521

RADIUS Load Balancing – NetScaler 11.1

Last Modified: Sep 2, 2018 @ 7:42 am

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RADIUS Load Balancing Overview

Two-factor authentication to NetScaler Gateway requires the RADIUS protocol to be enabled on the two-factor authentication product.

On your RADIUS servers, you’ll need to add the NetScaler appliances as RADIUS Clients. When NetScaler uses a local (same appliance) load balanced Virtual Server for RADIUS authentication, the traffic is sourced from the NetScaler SNIP (Subnet IP). When NetScaler uses a direct connection to a RADIUS Server without going through a load balancing Virtual Server, or uses a remote (different appliance) Load Balancing Virtual Server, the traffic is sourced from the NetScaler NSIP (NetScaler IP). Use the correct IP(s) when adding the NetScaler appliances as RADIUS Clients. And adjust firewall rules accordingly.

For High Availability pairs, if you locally load balance RADIUS, then you only need to add the SNIP as a RADIUS Client since the SNIP floats between the two appliances. However, if you are not locally load balancing RADIUS, then you’ll need to add the NSIP of both appliances as RADIUS Clients. Use the same RADIUS Secret for both appliances.

When load balancing RADIUS, you’ll want a monitor that verifies that the RADIUS server is functional. The RADIUS monitor will login to the RADIUS server and look for a response. You will need static credentials that the RADIUS monitor can use to login to the RADIUS server.

If you don’t want your monitor to login to RADIUS, then the only other monitoring option is Ping. Adjust the firewall accordingly.

If you have RADIUS Servers in multiple datacenters, you can create multiple load balancing Virtual Servers and cascade them so that the local RADIUS Servers are used first, and if they’re not available, then the Virtual Server fails over to RADIUS Servers in remote datacenters.

RADIUS Monitor

The RADIUS Monitor attempts to successfully log into the RADIUS server. For RSA, create an account on RSA with the following parameters as mentioned by Jonathan Pitre:

  • Setup a user with a fixed passcode in your RSA console.
  • Ensure you login with that user at least once to the RSA console because you’ll be asked to change it the first time.
  • There is no need to assign a token to your monitor user as long as you are using a fixed passcode. You don’t want to waste a token on a user just for monitoring.

Henny Louwers – Configure RSA RADIUS monitoring on NetScaler:

  1. In the NetScaler Configuration Utility, on the left under Traffic ManagementLoad Balancing, click Monitors.
  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Name the monitor RSA or similar. Change the Type drop-down to RADIUS.
  4. On the Standard Parameters tab, you might have to increase the Response Time-out to 4.
  5. On the Special Parameters tab, enter valid RADIUS credentials. Make sure these credentials do not change or expire. For RSA, in the Password field, enter the fixed passcode.
  6. Also enter the RADIUS key configured on the RADIUS server for the NetScaler as RADIUS client.
  7. For Response Codes, add both 2 and 3means success, while 3 indicates some kind of failure. Either result means that the RADIUS server is responding, and thus is probably functional. But 2 is the ideal response.
  8. Click Create when done.

    add lb monitor RSA RADIUS -respCode 2-3 -userName ctxsvc -password Passw0rd -radKey Passw0rd -resptimeout 4

Servers

  1. On the left, expand Traffic Management, expand Load Balancing, and click Servers.
  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Enter a descriptive server name; usually it matches the actual server name.
  4. Enter the IP address of the server.
  5. Enter comments to describe the server. Click Create.

    add server RSA01 10.2.2.42
    add server RSA02 10.2.2.43
  6. Continue adding RADIUS servers.

Service Groups

  1. On the left, expand Traffic Management, expand Load Balancing, and click Service Groups.
  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. You will create one Service Group per datacenter. Enter a name reflecting the name of the datacenter.
  4. Change the Protocol to RADIUS.
  5. Click OK.
  6. On the left, in the Service Group Members section, click where it says No Service Group Member.
  7. If you did not create server objects, then enter the IP address of a RADIUS Server in this datacenter. If you previously created a server object, then change the selection to Server Based, and select the server object(s).
  8. In the Port field, enter 1812 (RADIUS).
  9. Click Create.
  10. Click OK when done adding members.
  11. On the right, in the Advanced Settings column, click Monitors.
  12. On the left, in the Monitors section, click where it says No Service Group to Monitor Binding.
  13. Click the arrow next to Click  to select.
  14. Select your new RADIUS monitor, and click Select.
  15. Click Bind.
  16. To verify the member is up, click in the Service Group Members section.

  17. Highlight a member and click Monitor Details.
  18. It should say Radius response code 2 (or 3) received. Click OK.
  19. Click Done to finish creating the Service Group.

    add serviceGroup svcgrp-RSA RADIUS
    bind serviceGroup svcgrp-RSA RSA01 1812
    bind serviceGroup svcgrp-RSA -monitorName RSA
  20. The Service Group is displayed as UP.
  21. Add additional service groups for Radius servers in each data center.

Virtual Server

  1. On the left, expand Traffic Management, expand Load Balancing, and click Virtual Servers.

  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Name it lbvip-RADIUS-HQ or similar. You will create one Virtual Server per datacenter so include the datacenter name.
  4. Change the Protocol drop-down to RADIUS.
  5. Enter a Virtual IP. This VIP cannot conflict with any other IP + Port already being used. You can use an existing VIP if the VIP is not already listening on UDP 1812.
  6. Enter 1812 as the Port. Click OK.
  7. In the Services and Service Groups section, click where it says No Load Balancing Virtual Server ServiceGroup Binding.
  8. Click the arrow next to Click to select.
  9. Select a previously created Service Group and click Select.

  10. Click Bind.
  11. Click Continue.
  12. On the right, in the Advanced Settings section, click Method.
  13. On the left, change the Load Balancing Method to TOKEN.
  14. In the Expression box, enter CLIENT.UDP.RADIUS.USERNAME.
  15. Click OK.
  16. On the right, in the Advanced Settings section, click Persistence.
  17. On the left, change Persistence to RULE.
  18. In the Expression box, enter CLIENT.UDP.RADIUS.USERNAME.
  19. Click OK.
  20. Click Done to finish creating the Virtual Server.
  21. If you are configuring this RADIUS Load Balancer for more than just NetScaler Gateway, you can add another Load Balancer on port 1813 for RADIUS Accounting. Then you need a Persistency Group to tie the two load balancers together. See Configuring RADIUS Load Balancing with Persistence at Citrix Docs.
    add lb vserver lbvip-RSA RADIUS 10.2.2.210 1812 -persistenceType RULE -lbMethod TOKEN -rule CLIENT.UDP.RADIUS.USERNAME
    bind lb vserver lbvip-RSA svcgrp-RSA
  22. The new Virtual Server should show as Up. If not, click the Refresh icon.
  23. Create additional Virtual Servers for each datacenter. These additional Virtual Servers do not need a VIP. so change the IP Address Type to Non Addressable. Only the first Virtual Server will be directly accessible.

    add lb vserver lbvip-RSA-Backup RADIUS 0.0.0.0 0 -persistenceType NONE -cltTimeout 120
  24. Notice that the additional datacenter Virtual Servers have an IP Address of 0.0.0.0 and port of 0.
  25. After you are done creating a Virtual Server for each datacenter, click the ellipsis next to the primary datacenter’s Virtual Server, and click Edit.
  26. On the right, in the Advanced Settings column, click Protection.
  27. On the left, in the Protection section, change the Backup Virtual Server to one of the other datacenter Virtual Servers. If all of the services in this datacenter are DOWN, the backup Virtual Server will be used instead. You can cascade multiple Virtual Servers using this method. Click OK and Done.

    set lb vserver lbvip-RSA -backupVServer lbvip-RSA-Backup
  28. You may now use this Virtual IP in your RADIUS authentication policies for NetScaler Gateway or NetScaler management login.

NetScaler Gateway 11.1 – LDAP Authentication

Last Modified: Sep 2, 2018 @ 7:44 am

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💡 = Recently Updated

LDAP Load Balancing

Before you create an LDAP authentication policy, load balance the Domain Controllers. If you don’t load balance your Domain Controllers, then when users enter an incorrect password, the user account will be prematurely locked out.

If you have multiple domains, create different Load Balancing Virtual Servers for each domain. These multiple Load Balancing Virtual Servers can share the same VIP if their port numbers are different. Or you can use a different VIP for each domain.

LDAP Authentication Server

To create the LDAP Authentication Server, do the following:

  1. On the left, expand Authentication and click Dashboard.
  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. In the Choose Server Type drop-down, select LDAP.
  4. Enter LDAP-Corp as the name. If you have multiple domains, you’ll need a separate LDAP Server per domain so make sure you include the domain name.
  5. Change the selection to Server IP. Enter the VIP of the load balancing vServer for LDAP.
  6. Change the Security Type to SSL.
  7. Enter 636 as the Port. Scroll down.
  8. Note: it’s also possible to point the LDAP Server IP to a Global Catalog. See Citrix CTX200506 How to Change Password through NetScaler in a Multi-Domain Active Directory Forest Using LDAP Referral for configuration details.  💡
  9. In the Connection Settings section, in the Base DN field, enter your Active Directory DNS domain name in LDAP format.
  10. In the Administrator Bind DN field, enter the credentials of the LDAP bind account in userPrincipalName format. Domain\Username also works.
  11. Enter the Administrator password.
  12. Click Test Connection. NetScaler will attempt to login to the LDAP IP. Scroll down.
  13. In the Other Settings section, use the drop-down next to Server Logon Name Attribute, Group Attribute, and Sub Attribute Name to select the default fields for Active Directory.
  14. On the right, check the box next to Allow Password Change.
  15. Note: there is a checkbox for Validate LDAP Server Certificate. If you want to do this, see Citrix Discussions for instructions for loading the root certificate to /nsconfig/truststore.
  16. If you want to restrict access to only members of a specific group, in the Search Filter field, enter memberOf=<GroupDN>. See the example below:
    memberOf=CN=CitrixRemote,OU=Citrix,DC=corp,DC=local
    You can add :1.2.840.113556.1.4.1941: to the query so it searches through nested groups. Without this users will need to be direct members of the filtered group.
    memberOf:1.2.840.113556.1.4.1941:=CN=CitrixRemote,OU=Citrix,DC=corp,DC=local

    1. An easy way to get the full distinguished name of the group is through Active Directory Administrative Center. Double-click the group object and switch to the Extensions page. On the right, switch to the Attribute Editor tab.
    2. Or in Active Directory Users & Computers, enable Advanced view, browse to the object (don’t use Find), double-click the object, and switch to the Attribute Editor tab.
    3. Scroll down to distinguishedName, double-click it and then copy it to the clipboard.

    4. Back on the NetScaler, in the Search Filter field, type in memberOf= and then paste the Distinguished Name right after the equals sign. Don’t worry about spaces.
  17. Scroll down and click More.
  18. For Nested Group Extraction, if desired, change the selection to Enabled.
  19. Set Group Name Identifier to samAccountName.
  20. Set Group Search Attribute to memberOf. Select << New >> first.
  21. Set Group Search Sub-Attribute to CN. Select << New >> first.
  22. For the Group Search Filter field, see CTX123795 Example of LDAP Nested Group Search Filter Syntax.
  23. Scroll down and click Create.

    add authentication ldapAction Corp-Gateway -serverIP 10.2.2.210 -serverPort 636 -ldapBase "dc=corp,dc=local" -ldapBindDn "corp\\ctxsvc" -ldapBindDnPassword Passw0rd -ldapLoginName samaccountname -searchFilter "memberOf=CN=Citrix Remote,CN=Users,DC=corp,DC=local" -groupAttrName memberOf -subAttributeName CN -secType SSL -passwdChange ENABLED
  24. The status of the LDAP Server should be Up.

LDAP Policy Expression

The Authentication Dashboard doesn’t allow you to create the LDAP Policy so you must create it elsewhere.

You can create the LDAP policy now. Or you can wait and create it later when you bind the LDAP Server to the NetScaler Gateway vServer.

To create it now:

  1. Go to NetScaler Gateway > Policies > Authentication > LDAP.
  2. On the right, in the Policies tab, click Add.
  3. Change the Server drop-down to the LDAP Server you created earlier.
  4. Give the LDAP Policy a name (one for each domain).
  5. In the Expression box, enter ns_true.
  6. Click Create.

     add authentication ldapPolicy LDAP-Corp ns_true LDAP-Corp

Gateway Authentication Feedback and Licenses

  1. On the left, under NetScaler Gateway, click Global Settings.
  2. On the right, in the right column, click Change authentication AAA settings.
  3. If you are using Gateway features that require Gateway Universal licenses, then change the Maximum Number of Users to the number of Gateway Universal licenses you have installed on this appliance. This field has a default value of 5, and administrators frequently forget to change it, thus only allowing 5 users to connect.
  4. If desired, check the box for Enable Enhanced Authentication Feedback. This feature provides a message to users if authentication fails. The message users receive include password errors, account disabled or locked, or the user is not found, to name a few. Click OK.

    set aaa parameter -enableEnhancedAuthFeedback YES -maxAAAUsers 200

Next Step

Multiple Domains – UPN Method

To support multiple Active Directory domains on a NetScaler Gateway, you create multiple LDAP authentication policies, one for each Active Directory domain, and bind all of the LDAP policies to the NetScaler Gateway Virtual Server. When the user logs into NetScaler Gateway, only the username and password are entered. The NetScaler will then loop through each of the LDAP policies in priority order until it finds one that contains the entered username/password.

What if the same username is present in multiple domains? As NetScaler loops through the LDAP policies, as soon as it finds one with the specified username, it will try to authenticate with that particular LDAP policy. If the password doesn’t match the user account for the attempted domain then a failed logon attempt will be logged in that domain and NetScaler will try the next domain.

Unfortunately, the only way to enter a realm/domain name during user authentication is to require users to login using userPrincipalNames. To use userPrincipalName, set the LDAP Policy/Server with the Server Logon Name Attribute set to userPrincipalName.

You can even do a combination of policies: some with samAccountName and some with userPrincipalName. The samAccountName policies would be searched in priority order and the userPrincipalName policies can be used to override the search order. Bind the userPrincipalName policies higher (lower priority number) than the samAccountName policies.

NetScaler 11.1 supports adding a domain name drop-down list to the logon page. Then use Cookie expressions in the auth policies and session policies. However, this probably doesn’t work for Receivers. See CTX203873 How to Add Drop-Down Menu with Domain Names on Logon Page for NetScaler Gateway 11.0 64.x and later releases for details.
User-added image

Another option for a domain drop-down is nFactor Authentication for Gateway. This also doesn’t work with Receiver Self-service.

After authentication is complete, a Session Policy will be applied that has the StoreFront URL. The NetScaler Gateway will attempt to log into StoreFront using Single Sign-on so the user doesn’t have to login again. When logging into NetScaler Gateway, only two fields are required: username and password. However, when logging in to StoreFront, a third field is required: domain name. So how does NetScaler specify the domain name while logging in to StoreFront?

There are two methods of specifying the domain:

  • AAA Group – Configure multiple session policies with unique Single Sign-on Domains.  Inside the Session Policy is a field called Single Sign-on Domain for specifying the domain name. If there is only one Active Directory domain, then you can use the same Session Policy for all users. However, if there are multiple domains, then you would need multiple Session Policies, one for each Active Directory domain. But as the NetScaler loops through the LDAP policies during authentication, once a successful LDAP policy is found, you need a method of linking an LDAP policy with a Session Policy that has the corresponding SSO Domain. This is typically done using AAA groups. To use this method, see Multiple Domains – AAA Group Method.
  • userPrincipalName – Alternatively, configure the LDAP policy/server to extract the user’s UPN, and then authenticate to StoreFront using UPN. This is the easiest method but some domains don’t have userPrincipalNames configured correctly.

The userPrincipalName method is detailed below:

  1. In each of your NetScaler LDAP policies/servers, in the Other Settings section, in the SSO Name Attribute field, enter userPrincipalName (select –<< New >>– first). Make sure there are no spaces after this attribute name. NetScaler will use this pull this attribute from AD, and use it to Single Sign-on the user to StoreFront.
  2. In StoreFront Console, right-click  the Store, and click Manage Authentication Methods.
  3. On the right, click the gear icon, and then click Configure Trusted Domains.
  4. In the Trusted domains box, select Any domain.
  5. Or add your domains in DNS format. The advantage of entering domain names is that you can select a default domain if internal users forget to enter a domain name during login. The DNS format is required for UPN logins (e.g. SSO from NetScaler Gateway).
  6. On the NetScaler Gateway Virtual Server, bind LDAP authentication polices in priority order. It will search them in order until it finds a match.
  7. In your Session Policies/Profiles, in the Published Applications tab, make sure Single Sign-on Domain is not configured. Since NetScaler is using the userPrincipalName there’s no need to specify a domain. If Single Sign-on Domain is configured then Single Sign-on authentication will fail.

Multiple Domains – AAA Groups Method

Another method of specifying the domain name when performing Single Sign-on to StoreFront is to use a unique session policy/profile for each domain. Use AAA Groups to distinguish one domain from another.

  1. Go to NetScaler Gateway > Policies > Authentication > LDAP.
  2. On the right, switch to the Servers tab. Make sure all domains are in the list. Edit one of the domains.
  3. Scroll down to the Other Settings section,
  4. In the Default Authentication Group field, enter a new, unique group name. Each domain has a different group name. Click OK.
  5. Edit another domain and specify a new unique group name. Each domain has a different group name.
  6. Go to NetScaler Gateway > User Administration > AAA Groups.
  7. On the right, click Add.
  8. Name the group so it exactly matches the group name you specified in the LDAP server. Click OK.
  9. On the right, in the Advanced Policies section, add the Policies section.
  10. On the left, in the Policies section, click the Plus icon.
  11. Select Session, and click Continue.
  12. Click the plus icon to create a new policy.
  13. Give it a name that indicates the domain. You will have a separate policy for each domain.
  14. Click the plus icon to create a new profile.
  15. Give the Profile a name that indicates the domain. You will have a separate profile for each domain.
  16. Switch to the Published Applications tab.
  17. Check the Override Global box next to Single Sign-on Domain. Enter the domain name that StoreFront is expecting. Click Create.
  18. Give the policy a ns_true expression, and click Create.
  19. In the Priority field, give it a number that is lower than any other Session Policy that has Single Sign-on Domain configured. Click OK.
  20. Click Done.
  21. Create another AAA Group.
  22. Give it a name for the next domain.
  23. Create another Session Policy for the next domain.
  24. Create another profile for the next domain. On the Published Applications tab, specify the domain name of the next domain.
  25. Bind the new policy with a low Priority number.
  26. When a user logs in, NetScaler loops through LDAP policies until one of them works. NetScaler adds the user to the Default Authentication Group specified in the LDAP Server. NetScaler finds a matching AAA Group and applies the Session Policy that has SSON Domain configured. Since the policy is bound with a low priority number, it overrides any other policy that also has SSON Domain configured.

Domain Controller (LDAPS) Load Balancing – NetScaler 11.1

Last Modified: Sep 2, 2018 @ 7:41 am

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Overview

If you plan to use LDAP (Active Directory) for NetScaler Gateway or NetScaler management authentication, load balance the Domain Controllers that are used for authentication.

An alternative to load balancing is to configure NetScaler Gateway and NetScaler management authentication with multiple authentication policies, each pointing to a single Domain Controller. However, NetScaler will try each authentication policy until it finds one that works. If the user enters a wrong password and if you have three authentication policies pointing to different Domain Controllers in the same domain then three different failure attempts will be recorded thus causing premature account lockout. Use Load Balancing to avoid this behavior.

This page details LDAPS, aka Secure LDAP. This protocol requires certificates to be installed on the Domain Controllers. When a user’s password expires, Active Directory does not allow password changes over clear text LDAP so LDAPS must be used instead. Make sure you have certificates installed on your Domain Controllers. The easiest way to accomplish that is to deploy a Microsoft Certificate Authority. Once that’s done the Domain Controllers will request certificates automatically.

An ldaps monitor can be used to verify that the Domain Controller is functional. The ldaps monitor will login as an account, perform an LDAP query, and look for a successful response. The ldaps monitor uses a service account to login. Make sure the service account’s password does not expire. Domain User permissions are sufficient. Since this monitor is a Perl script, it uses NSIP as the source IP. You can use RNAT to override this as described in CTX217712 How to Force scriptable monitor to use SNIP in Netscaler in 10.5.

If you have Domain Controllers in multiple datacenters, you can create multiple load balancing Virtual Servers and cascade them so that the local Domain Controllers are used first, and if they’re not available, then the Virtual Server fails over to Domain Controllers in remote datacenters.

The Load Balancing Virtual Server for LDAPS can be TCP or SSL_TCP:

  • If the protocol is TCP, then SSL-encrypted LDAP traffic is not terminated on the NetScaler, and is simply forwarded to the LDAP servers. If your LDAP client needs to verify the LDAP server certificate, then this Load Balancing configuration will not work, since each back-end LDAP server will have a different certificate.
  • If your Load Balancing Virtual Server is protocol SSL_TCP, then a certificate must be installed on the NetScaler and bound to the Load Balancing Virtual Server. SSL is terminated at the NetScaler and re-encrypted before sending it to the destination Domain Controller. The primary benefit of NetScaler SSL termination is that your LDAP clients can verify the Virtual Server SSL certificate.

When NetScaler uses a local (same appliance) load balanced Virtual Server for LDAPS authentication, the traffic is sourced from the NetScaler SNIP (Subnet IP). When NetScaler uses a direct connection to a Domain Controller without going through a local Load Balancing Virtual Server, or if NetScaler uses a remote (different appliance) Load Balancing VIP, then the traffic is sourced from the NetScaler NSIP (NetScaler IP). Adjust firewall rules accordingly.

LDAPS Monitor

Note: Perl monitor uses NSIP as the source IP. You can use RNAT to override this as described in CTX217712 How to Force scriptable monitor to use SNIP in Netscaler in 10.5.

  1. In the NetScaler Configuration Utility, expand Traffic Management, expand Load Balancing, and click Monitors.
  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Name the monitor ldaps-Corp or similar. The ldaps monitor logs into Active Directory, performs an LDAP query, and looks for a successful response. The monitor configuration has domain specific information so if you have multiple Active Directory domains, then you will need multiple ldaps monitors. Include the domain name in the monitor name.
  4. Change the Type to LDAP.
  5. Scroll down and check the box next to Secure.
  6. Scroll back up and switch to the Special Parameters tab.
  7. On the Special Parameters tab, use the Script Name drop-down list to select the nsldap.pl file.
  8. In the Base DN field, enter your domain name in LDAP format (e.g. dc=company,dc=com)
  9. In the Bind DN field, enter the UPN login (e.g. ctxsvc@company.com) of a service account in the domain that can browse all objects. Any normal Domain User should be sufficient. Just make sure the password doesn’t expire.
  10. In the Filter field, enter cn=builtin. This limits the search results.
  11. In the Password field, enter the password for the service account. Make sure there is no semicolon in the password or the script will be unable to parse the parameters.
  12. Click Create.

    add lb monitor LDAP-Corp LDAP -scriptName nsldap.pl -dispatcherIP 127.0.0.1 -dispatcherPort 3013 -password Passw0rd -secure YES -baseDN "dc=corp,dc=local" -bindDN "corp\\ctxsvc" -filter cn=builtin
  13. If you have multiple domains then create additional monitors: one for each domain.

Servers

  1. On the left, expand Traffic Management, expand Load Balancing, and click Servers.
  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Enter a descriptive server name, usually it matches the actual server name.
  4. Enter the IP address of the server.
  5. Enter comments to describe the server. Click Create.

    add server AD01 10.2.2.11
    add server AD01 10.2.2.12
  6. Continue adding Domain Controllers.

Service Groups

  1. On the left, expand Traffic Management, expand Load Balancing, and click Service Groups.
  2. On the right click Add
    .
  3. You will create one Service Group per datacenter. Enter a name reflecting the name of the data center. Also, you will create a set of service groups per Active Directory domain so include the domain name.
  4. Change the Protocol to SSL_TCP. Scroll down and click OK.

  5. On the left, in the Service Group Members section, click where it says No Service Group Member.
  6. If you did not create server objects, then enter the IP address of a Domain Controller in this datacenter. If you previously created a server object, then change the selection to Server Based, and select the server object. In the Port field, enter 636 (LDAPS).
    1. Note: Any Domain Controller you add to this list must have an SSL certificate installed. The easiest way to install SSL certificates on the Domain Controllers is with Active Directory Certificate Services since it installs the certificates automatically.
  7.  Click Create.
  8. Click OK.
  9. On the right, in the Advanced Settings column, click Monitors.
  10. On the left, in the Monitors section, click where it says No Service Group to Monitor Binding.
  11. Click the arrow next to Click to select.
  12. Select your new LDAPS monitor and click Select.
  13. Click Bind.
  14. To verify the member is up, click in the Service Group Members section.
  15. Click the ellipsis next to a member and click Monitor Details.
  16. It should say Success – Probe succeeded. Click Close.
  17. If the monitor doesn’t work, use ldp.exe to verify the Domain Controller certificate.
  18. Click Close and Done to finish creating the Service Group.

    add serviceGroup svcgrp-LDAP-Corp SSL_TCP
    bind serviceGroup svcgrp-LDAP-Corp AD01 636
    bind serviceGroup svcgrp-LDAP-Corp AD02 636
    bind serviceGroup svcgrp-LDAP-Corp -monitorName LDAP-Corp
  19. Add additional service groups for Domain Controllers in each data center.

Virtual Server

  1. Create or import a certificate that matches the FQDN that resolves to the new Load Balancing VIP for LDAPS.
  2. On the left, expand Traffic Management, expand Load Balancing, and click Virtual Servers.

  3. On the right, click Add.
  4. Name it LDAPS-Corp-HQ-LB or similar. You will create one Virtual Server per datacenter so include the datacenter name. Also, each domain has a separate set of Virtual Servers so include the domain name.
  5. Change the Protocol drop-down to SSL_TCP.
  6. Enter a Virtual IP. This VIP cannot conflict with any other IP + Port already being used. You can use an existing VIP that is not already listening on TCP 636.
  7. Enter 636 as the Port. Click OK.
  8. On the left, in the Service Group section, click where it says No Load Balancing Virtual Server ServiceGroup Binding.
  9. Click the arrow next to Click to select.
  10. Select the previously created Service Group and click Select.
  11. Click Bind.
  12. Click Continue.
  13. On the left, in the Certificates section, click where it says No Server Certificate.
  14. Click the arrow next to Click to select.
  15. Select a certificate that matches the FQDN that will resolve to this VIP. Click Select.
  16. Click Bind.
  17. Click Continue.

    add lb vserver lbvip-LDAP-Corp SSL_TCP 10.2.2.210 636 -persistenceType NONE -cltTimeout 9000
    
    bind lb vserver lbvip-LDAP-Corp svcgrp-LDAP-Corp
  18. If you haven’t enabled the Default SSL Profile, then perform other normal SSL configuration including: disable SSLv3, and bind a Modern Cipher Group.
    bind ssl vserver MyvServer -certkeyName MyCert
    
    set ssl vserver MyvServer -ssl3 DISABLED -tls11 ENABLED -tls12 ENABLED
    
    unbind ssl vserver MyvServer -cipherName ALL
    
    bind ssl vserver MyvServer -cipherName Modern
    
    bind ssl vserver MyvServer -eccCurveName ALL
  19. Click Done to finish creating the Virtual Server.
  20. The new Virtual Server should show as Up.
  21. Create additional Virtual Servers for each datacenter. These additional Virtual Servers do not need a VIP so change the IP Address Type to Non Addressable. Only the first Virtual Server will be directly accessible.

    add lb vserver lbvip-LDAP-Corp-Backup SSL_TCP 0.0.0.0 0
  22. Notice that the additional datacenter Virtual Servers show up with an IP Address of 0.0.0.0 and port of 0.
  23. After you are done creating a Virtual Server for each datacenter, click the ellipsis next to the primary datacenter’s Virtual Server and click Edit.
  24. On the right, in the Advanced Settings column, click Protection.
  25. On the left, in the Protection section, change the Backup Virtual Server to one of the other datacenter Virtual Servers. If all of the services in this datacenter are DOWN, the backup Virtual Server will be used instead. You can cascade multiple Virtual Servers using this method. Click OK and Done.

    set lb vserver lbvip-LDAP-Corp -backupVServer lbvip-LDAP-Corp-Backup

Next Steps

You may now use this Virtual IP in your LDAP authentication policies for NetScaler Gateway or NetScaler management login.

StoreFront Load Balancing – NetScaler 11.1

Last Modified: Sep 2, 2018 @ 7:49 am

Navigation

Monitor

Note: This is a Perl monitor, which uses the NSIP as the source IP. You can use RNAT to override this as described in CTX217712 How to Force scriptable monitor to use SNIP in Netscaler in 10.5.

  1. On the left, expand Traffic Management, expand Load Balancing, and click Monitors.
  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Name it StoreFront or similar.
  4. Change the Type drop-down to STORERONT.
  5. If you will use SSL to communicate with the StoreFront servers, then scroll down, and check the box next to Secure.
  6. Scroll up, and switch to the Special Parameters tab.
  7. In the Store Name field, enter the name of your store (e.g. MyStore) without spaces.
  8. Click Create.

    add lb monitor StoreFront STOREFRONT -scriptName nssf.pl -dispatcherIP 127.0.0.1 -dispatcherPort 3013 -secure YES -storename Store

Servers

  1. On the left, expand Traffic Management, expand Load Balancing, and click Servers.
  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Enter a descriptive server name, usually it matches the actual server name.
  4. Enter the IP address of the server.
  5. Enter comments to describe the server. Click Create.
  6. Continue adding StoreFront servers.

    add server SF01 10.2.2.57
    add server SF02 10.2.2.58

Service Group

  1. On the left, expand Traffic Management, expand Load Balancing, and click Service Groups.

  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Give the Service Group a descriptive name (e.g. svcgrp-StoreFront-SSL).
  4. Change the Protocol to HTTP or SSL. If the protocol is SSL, ensure that the StoreFront Monitor has Secure checked.
  5. Scroll down and click OK.

  6. Click where it says No Service Group Member.
  7. If you did not create server objects then enter the IP address of a StoreFront Server. If you previously created a server object then change the selection to Server Based and select the server objects.
  8. Enter 80 or 443 as the port. Then click Create.
  9. Click OK.
  10. On the right, under Advanced Settings , click Monitors.
  11. Click where it says says No Service Group to Monitor Binding.
  12. Click the arrow next to Click to select.
  13. Select your StoreFront monitor and click Select.
  14. Then click Bind.
  15. To verify that the monitor is working, on the left, in the Service Group Members section, click the Service Group Members line.
  16. Click the ellipsis next to a member and click Monitor Details.
  17. The Last Response should be Success – Probe succeeded. Click Close twice.
  18. On the right, under Advanced Settings, click Settings.
  19. On the left, in the Settings section, check the box for Client IP and enter X-Forwarded-For as the Header. Then click OK.
  20. Then click Done.

    add serviceGroup svcgrp-StoreFront-SSL SSL -maxClient 0 -maxReq 0 -cip ENABLED X-Forwarded-For
    
    bind serviceGroup svcgrp-StoreFront-SSL SF01 443
    bind serviceGroup svcgrp-StoreFront-SSL SF02 443
    bind serviceGroup svcgrp-StoreFront-SSL -monitorName StoreFront
  21. If the Service Group is http and you don’t have certificates installed on your StoreFront servers (aka SSL Offload) then you’ll need to enable loopback in StoreFront.
    1. In StoreFront 3.5 and newer, you enable it in the GUI console.
    2. In StoreFront 3.0, run the following commands on the StoreFront 3.0 servers as detailed at Citrix Blog Post What’s New in StoreFront 3.0.
      & "C:\Program Files\Citrix\Receiver StoreFront\Scripts\ImportModules.ps1"
      
      Set-DSLoopback -SiteId 1 -VirtualPath /Citrix/StoreWeb -Loopback OnUsingHttp

Load Balancing Virtual Server

  1. Create or install a certificate that will be used by the SSL Offload Virtual Server. This certificate must match the DNS name for the load balanced StoreFront servers. For email discovery in Citrix Receiver, the certificate must either be a wildcard (*.corp.local) or have a subject alternative name for discoverReceiver.domain.com (domain.com = email address suffix)
  2. On the left, under Traffic Management > Load Balancing, click Virtual Servers.

  3. On the right click Add.
  4. Name it lbvip-StoreFront-SSL or similar.
  5. Change the Protocol to SSL.
  6. Specify a new internal VIP.
  7. Enter 443 as the Port.
  8. Click OK.

    add lb vserver lbvip-StoreFront-SSL SSL 10.2.2.221 443 -persistenceType SOURCEIP -timeout 60
  9. On the left, in the Services and Service Groups section, click where it says No Load Balancing Virtual Server ServiceGroup Binding.
  10. Click the arrow next to Click to select.
  11. Select your StoreFront Service Group and click Select.
  12. Click Bind.

    bind lb vserver lbvip-StoreFront-SSL svcgrp-StoreFront-SSL
  13. Click Continue.
  14. Click where it says No Server Certificate.
  15. Click the arrow next to Click to select.
  16. Select the certificate for this StoreFront Load Balancing Virtual Server and click Select.
  17. Click Bind.

    bind ssl vserver lbvip-StoreFront-SSL -certkeyName WildCorpCom
  18. Click Continue.
  19. On the right, in the Advanced Settings column, click Persistence.
  20. On the left, in the Persistence section, select SOURCEIP. Do NOT use COOKIEINSERT persistence or Android devices will not function correctly.
  21. Set the timeout to match the timeout of Receiver for Web.
  22. The IPv4 Netmask should default to 32 bits.
  23. Click OK.
  24. If the NetScaler communicates with the StoreFront servers using HTTP (aka SSL Offload – 443 on client-side, 80 on server-side), and if you have enabled the Default SSL Profile, then you’ll either need to edit the Default SSL Profile to include the SSL Redirect option, or create a new custom SSL Profile with the SSL Redirect option enabled, and then bind the custom SSL Profile to this vServer.
  25. If the default SSL Profile is not enabled, then you’ll need to edit the SSL Parameters section on the vServer, and at the top right, check the box next to SSL Redirect. Otherwise the Receiver for Web page will never display.
  26. set ssl vserver lbvip-StoreFront-SSL -sslRedirect ENABLED -ssl3 DISABLED
  27. If you haven’t enabled the Default SSL Profile, then perform other normal SSL configuration including: disable SSLv3, bind a Modern Cipher Group, and enable Strict Transport Security.
    bind ssl vserver lbvip-StoreFront-SSL -certkeyName MyCert
    
    set ssl vserver lbvip-StoreFront-SSL -ssl3 DISABLED -tls11 ENABLED -tls12 ENABLED
    
    unbind ssl vserver lbvip-StoreFront-SSL -cipherName ALL
    
    bind ssl vserver lbvip-StoreFront-SSL -cipherName Modern
    
    bind ssl vserver lbvip-StoreFront-SSL -eccCurveName ALL
    
    bind lb vserver lbvip-StoreFront-SSL -policyName insert_STS_header -priority 100 -gotoPriorityExpression END -type RESPONSE

When connecting to StoreFront through load balancing, if you want to put the server name on the StoreFront webpage so you can identify the server, see Nicolas Ignoto Display server name with Citrix StoreFront 3.
Server name is displayed

SSL Redirect – SSL Load Balancing vServer Method

Users must enter https:// when navigating to the StoreFront website. To make it easier for the users, enable SSL Redirection.

This procedure details the SSL Load Balancing vServer method of performing an SSL redirect. An alternative is to use the Responder method.

  1. On the left, under Traffic Management > Load Balancing, click Virtual Servers.

  2. On the right, find the SSL Virtual Server you’ve already created, click the ellipsis next to it and click Edit.
  3. In the Basic Settings section, click the pencil icon.
  4. Click the More link.
  5. In the Redirect from Port field, enter 80.
  6. In the HTTPS Redirect URL field, enter your StoreFront Load Balancing URL (e.g. https://storefront.corp.com).
  7. Scroll down and click Continue twice.

    set lb vserver lbvip-StoreFront-SSL -redirectFromPort 80 -httpsRedirectUrl https://storefront.corp.com
  8. This method does not add any new vServers to the list so it’s not easy to see if this is configured.

StoreFront Base URL

  1. Create a DNS Host record that resolves to the new VIP.
  2. The DNS name for StoreFront load balancing must be different than the DNS name for NetScaler Gateway. Unless you are following the Single FQDN procedure.

  3. In the Citrix StoreFront console, right-click Server Group and click Change Base URL.
  4. Enter the new Base URL in https://storefront.corp.com format. This must match the certificate that is installed on the load balancer. Click OK.

Subscription Replication Load Balancing

If you have multiple StoreFront clusters (separate datacenters), you might want to replicate subscriptions between them. StoreFront subscription replication uses TCP port 808. To provide High Availability for this service, load balance TCP port 808 on the StoreFront servers. See Configure subscription synchronization at Citrix Docs for more information.

  1. On the left, expand Traffic Management, expand Load Balancing, and click Service Groups.

  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Give the Service Group a descriptive name (e.g. svcgrp-StoreFront-SubRepl).
  4. Change the Protocol to TCP.
  5. Scroll down and click OK.
  6. Click where it says No Service Group Member.
  7. Change the selection to Server Based and select the StoreFront servers.
  8. Enter 808 as the port. Then click Create.

  9. Click OK.
  10. On the right, under Advanced Settings, click Monitors.
  11. On the left, in the Monitors section, click where it says No Service Group to Monitor Binding.
  12. Click the arrow next to Click to select.
  13. Select the tcp monitor and click Select.
  14. Then click Bind and click Done.

    add serviceGroup svcgrp-StoreFront-FavRepl TCP
    bind serviceGroup svcgrp-StoreFront-FavRepl SF01 808
    bind serviceGroup svcgrp-StoreFront-FavRepl SF02 808
  15. On the left, under Traffic Management > Load Balancing, click Virtual Servers.

  16. On the right, click the ellipsis next to the existing StoreFront Load Balancing vServer, and click Add.
  17. Name it lbvip-StoreFront-SubRepl or similar.
  18. Change the Protocol to TCP.
  19. Specify the same VIP that you used for SSL Load Balancing of StoreFront.
  20. Enter 808 as the Port.
  21. Click OK.
  22. Click where it says No Load Balancing Virtual Server ServiceGroup Binding.

  23. Click the arrow next to Click to select.
  24. Select your StoreFront Subscription Replication Service Group and click Select.
  25. Click Bind.
  26. Click Continue.
  27. Then click Done.

    add lb vserver lbvip-StoreFront-FavRepl TCP 10.2.2.201 808 -persistenceType NONE
    
    bind lb vserver lbvip-StoreFront-FavRepl svcgrp-SF-FavRepl

Related Posts

SSL Virtual Servers – NetScaler 11.1

Last Modified: Oct 1, 2018 @ 5:20 am

This page contains generic SSL instructions for all SSL Virtual Servers including: Load Balancing, NetScaler Gateway, Content Switching, and AAA.

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💡 = Recently Updated

Change Log

Cipher Group

References:

To create a custom secure cipher group:

  1. Ryan Butler has a PowerShell script at Github that can automate NetScaler SSL configuration to get an A+.
  2. The easiest way to create a cipher group is from the CLI. See Citrix Blogs Scoring an A+ at SSLlabs.com with Citrix NetScaler – 2016 update for cipher group CLI commands.
  3. The last cipher is only needed for Windows XP machines. It doesn’t actually require SSL3. If you don’t need to support Windows XP, then skip that command.
    add ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher
    bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1.2-ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384
    bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1.2-ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256
    bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1.2-ECDHE-RSA-AES-256-SHA384
    bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1.2-ECDHE-RSA-AES-128-SHA256
    bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1-ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA
    bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1-ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA
    bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1.2-DHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384
    bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1.2-DHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256
    bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1-DHE-RSA-AES-256-CBC-SHA
    bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1-DHE-RSA-AES-128-CBC-SHA
    bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1-AES-256-CBC-SHA
    bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName TLS1-AES-128-CBC-SHA
    bind ssl cipher custom-ssllabs-cipher -cipherName SSL3-DES-CBC3-SHA
  4. Or you can create the cipher group using the GUI. Go to Traffic Management > SSL > Cipher Groups.
  5. On the right, click Add.
  6. Name it Modern or similar.
  7. In the middle, click Add.
  8. Use the search box to find a particular cipher.
  9. Check the box next to one of the results and click the arrow to move it to the right. See Citrix Blogs Scoring an A+ at SSLlabs.com with Citrix NetScaler – 2016 update for recommended ciphers. The recommended ciphers vary based on the hardware platform and support for older clients.
  10. Use the up and down arrows to order the ciphers. NetScaler prefers the ciphers on top of the list, so the ciphers at the top of the list should be the most secure ciphers.
  11. Click Create when done.

Strict Transport Security Rewrite Policy

To get an A+ at SSLLabs.com, you need to insert the Strict-Transport-Security HTTP header in the responses. NetScaler Rewrite Policy can do this.

  1. Go to AppExpert > Rewrite, right-click Rewrite, and click Enable Feature.
  2. Go to AppExpert > Rewrite > Actions.
  3. On the right, click Add.
  4. Name the action insert_STS_header or similar.
  5. The Type should be INSERT_HTTP_HEADER.
  6. The Header Name should be Strict-Transport-Security.
  7. The Expression should be the following:
    "max-age=157680000"

  8. Click Create.
  9. On the left, go to AppExpert > Rewrite > Policies.
  10. On the right, click Add.
  11. Name it insert_STS_header or similar.
  12. Select the previously created Action.
  13. In the Expression box, enter HTTP.REQ.IS_VALID.
  14. Click Create.
  15. Now you can bind this Rewrite Response policy to HTTP-based SSL vServers.
  16. When editing an SSL vServer, if the Policies section doesn’t exist on the left, then add it from the Advanced Settings column on the right.
  17. In the Policies section on the left, click the plus icon.
  18. Select Rewrite > Response and click Continue.
  19. Then select the STS Rewrite Policy and click Bind.
enable ns feature rewrite

add rewrite action insert_STS_header insert_http_header Strict-Transport-Security "\"max-age=157680000\""

add rewrite policy insert_STS_header true insert_STS_header

bind lb vserver MyvServer -policyName insert_STS_header -priority 100 -gotoPriorityExpression END -type RESPONSE

Default SSL Profile

You can use SSL Profiles to package several SSL settings together and apply the settings package (Profile) to SSL vServers and SSL Services. These settings include: disable SSLv3, bind ciphers, bind ECC curves, etc.

There are default SSL Profiles, and there are custom SSL Profiles. The default SSL Profiles are disabled by default. Once the default SSL Profiles are enabled, the default setttings apply to all SSL vServers and all SSL Services, unless you bind a custom SSL Profile. Also, once default is enabled, it’s not possible to disable it.

  • Some features of custom SSL Profiles require default SSL Profiles to be enabled. For example, you cannot configure ciphers in a custom SSL Profile unless the default SSL Profiles are enabled.

If you enable the default SSL Profiles, then it’s not possible to configure SNI for backend (services and service groups).

Default SSL Profiles are intended to provide a baseline SSL configuration for all newly created SSL Virtual Servers and SSL Services. You can still create Custom SSL Profiles to override the Default SSL Profiles.

Enabling the default SSL profile will wipe out any SSL configuration on SSL entities (e.g. SSL Virtual Servers) that do not have a custom SSL profile bound. Citrix offers a script that can read your existing SSL entity SSL configuration and convert them to custom SSL Profiles. See Enabling the Default Profiles at Citrix Docs. The default_profile_scriptcan be downloaded from an individual NetScaler ADC firmware download page under Additional Components. The commands output by the script won’t work until the default SSL Profile is enabled.  💡

To enable the Default SSL profiles:

  1. Make sure you are connected to the appliance using http and not https.
  2. Go to Traffic Management > SSL.
  3. On the right, in the right column, click Change advanced SSL settings.
  4. Near the bottom, check the box next to Enable Default Profile. Note: this will change SSL settings on all SSL Virtual Servers to match the default SSL profile. You might want to do this during a maintenance window. Click OK when done.
  5. If you go back into Advanced SSL Settings, notice that the Default Profile is enabled and there’s no way to disable it.
  6. To change the default SSL profile, on the left, go to System > Profiles.
  7. On the right, switch to the SSL Profile tab.
  8. Click the ellipsis next to the frontend or backend default profile and click Edit. Frontend = client-side connections to SSL vServers. Backend = server-side connections (SSL Services and Service Groups).
  9. Or you can create a new custom SSL profile.
  10. Notice that SSLv3 is disabled by default.
  11. If you do any SSL Offload (SSL on the client side, HTTP on the server side) then you’ll need to edit the Basic Settings section and enable SSL Redirect. Or you can create a new SSL Profile with this option enabled. It’s near the bottom of the section. With this option enabled, any 301/302 redirects from the server with HTTP locations are rewritten to HTTPS locations. You might need this option for StoreFront load balancing if doing SSL Offload.
  12. Scroll down to the SSL Ciphers section and click the pencil icon.
  13. Click Remove All and click OK. You must click OK before binding the custom cipher group.
  14. Click the pencil icon again.
  15. Click Add.
  16. Scroll down and select your custom cipher group. Then click the arrow to move it to the right. Then click OK.
  17. Click OK when you see the No usable ciphers message. Then click Done to close the SSL Profile.
  18. If you edit one of your SSL Virtual Servers (e.g. Load Balancing vServer), there’s an SSL Profile section indicating that the default profile is being used. You can change the binding to a different SSL Profile.
  19. SSL Profiles do not include forcing Strict Transport Security. You’ll still need to create the STS Rewrite Policy and bind it to every SSL vServer as detailed in the next section.

Bind Certificate, Bind Cipher Group, Disable SSLv3, Enable STS

Whether you use SSL Profiles or not, you need to bind certificates and STS Rewrite Policy to every SSL vServer.

If you enabled the Default SSL Profiles feature, you can either leave it set to the Default SSL Profile; or you can change it to a Custom SSL Profile. Or you can bind an SSL Profile without enabling the Default SSL Profiles. If you don’t use the SSL Profiles feature, then you’ll need to manually configure ciphers and SSL settings on every SSL vServer.

Do the following on every SSL vServer:

  1. When creating an SSL Virtual Server (e.g. SSL Load Balancing vServer), on the left, in the Certificates section, click where it says No Server Certificate.
  2. Click where it says Click to select.
  3. Select a certificate and click Select.
  4. Click Bind.

    bind ssl vserver MyvServer -certkeyName MyCert
  5. If you want to bind a custom SSL Profile, if Default SSL Profile is enabled, in the SSL Profile section on the left, click the pencil icon.
  6. If the SSL Profile section isn’t on the left, then on the right, in the Advanced Settings section, click SSL Profile
  7. Select your custom SSL Profile and click OK.
  8. If you didn’t bind an SSL Profile, on the left, in the SSL Parameters section, click the pencil icon.
  9. Uncheck the box next to SSLv3. Make sure TLSv11 and TLSv12 are enabled. Click OK.

    set ssl vserver MyvServer -ssl3 DISABLED -tls11 ENABLED -tls12 ENABLED
  10. If you didn’t bind an SSL Profile, scroll down to the SSL Ciphers section and click the pencil icon.
  11. Click Remove All and click OK. You must click OK before binding the custom cipher group.
  12. Click the pencil icon again.
  13. Click Add.
  14. Scroll down and select your custom cipher group. Then click the arrow to move it to the right. Then click OK.
  15. Click OK when you see the No usable ciphers message.

    unbind ssl vserver MyvServer -cipherName ALL
    bind ssl vserver MyvServer -cipherName Modern
  16. SSL Virtual Servers created on newer versions of NetScaler will automatically have ECC Curves bound to them. However, if this appliance was upgraded from an older version then the ECC Curves might not be bound. If you are not using SSL Profile, then on the right, in the Advanced Settings section, click ECC Curve.
  17. On the left, in the ECC Curve section, click where it says No ECC Curve.
  18. Click to select.
  19. Choose ALL and click Select.
  20. Click Bind.

    bind ssl vserver MyvServer -eccCurveName ALL
  21. If the Policies section doesn’t exist on the left, then add it from the Advanced Settings column on the right.
  22. In the Policies section on the left, click the plus icon.
  23. Select Rewrite > Response and click Continue.
  24. Select the STS Rewrite Policy and click Bind.

    bind lb vserver MyvServer -policyName insert_STS_header -priority 100 -gotoPriorityExpression END -type RESPONSE

If you experience SSL performance problems on a NetScaler MPX, Citrix CTX207005 Performance Issues with NetScaler MPX SSL recommends creating and binding the following TCP Profile:  💡

add ns tcpProfile tcp_test -WS ENABLED -SACK ENABLED -maxBurst 20 -initialCwnd 8 -bufferSize 4096000 -flavor BIC -dynamicReceiveBuffering DISABLED -sendBuffsize 4096000

SSL Tests

After you’ve created an SSL Virtual Server, run the following tests:

SSL Redirect – SSL Load Balancing vServer Method

New in NetScaler 11.1, you can configure SSL Redirect directly in an SSL Load Balancing vServer (port 443) instead of creating a separate HTTP (port 80) Load Balancing vServer.

Limitations:

  • This is only an option for SSL Load Balancing vServers; it’s not configurable in Gateway vServers or Content Switching vServers.
  • Only one Redirect URL can be specified. Alternatively, the Responder method can handle multiple FQDNs to one VIP (e.g. wildcard certificate) and/or IP address URLs.

To configure an SSL Load Balancing vServer to redirect from HTTP to HTTPS:

  1. Edit the SSL Load Balancing vServer (port 443).
  2. In the Basic Settings section, click the pencil icon.
  3. Click More.
  4. In the Redirect from Port field, enter 80.
  5. In the HTTPS Redirect URL field, enter https://MyFQDN. Click Continue twice.

SSL Redirect – Down vServer Method

If you created an SSL Virtual Server that only listens on SSL 443, then users must enter https:// when navigating to the website. To make it easier for the users, create another load balancing Virtual Server on the same VIP but listens on HTTP 80 and then redirects the user’s browser to reconnect on SSL 443.

The Down Virtual Server Method is easy, but the Redirect Virtual Server must be down in order for the redirect to take effect. Another option is to use Responder policies to perform the redirect.

To create the down Redirect Virtual Server:

  1. On the left, under Traffic Management > Load Balancing, click Virtual Servers.

  2. On the right, find an SSL Virtual Server you’ve already created, click the ellipsis next to it, and click Add. Doing it this way copies some of the data from the already created Virtual Server.
  3. Or if you are redirecting NetScaler Gateway, create a new Load Balancing vServer with the same VIP as the Gateway.
  4. Change the name to indicate that this new Virtual Server is an SSL Redirect.
  5. Change the Protocol to HTTP on Port 80.
  6. The IP Address should already be filled in. It must match the original SSL Virtual Server (or Gateway vServer). Click OK.
  7. Don’t select any services. This vServer must intentionally be marked down so the redirect will take effect. Click Continue.
  8. On the right, in the Advanced Settings column, click Protection.
  9. In the Redirect URL field, enter the full URL including https://. For example: https://storefront.corp.com/Citrix/StoreWeb. Click OK.

  10. Click Done.
  11. When you view the SSL redirect Virtual Server in the list, it will have a state of DOWN. That’s OK. The Port 80 Virtual Server must be DOWN for this redirect method to work.

SSL Redirect – Responder Method

The Down Virtual Server Method is easy, but the Redirect Virtual Server must be down in order for the redirect to take effect. Another option is to use Responder policies to perform the redirect. This method requires the Redirect Virtual Server to be UP.

  1. Create a dummy Load Balancing service. This dummy service can be bound to multiple Redirect Virtual Servers. Go to Traffic Management > Load Balancing > Services.
  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Name it AlwaysUp or similar.
  4. Use a loopback IP address (e.g. 127.0.0.1). After the service is created, it changes to a NetScaler-owned IP.
  5. Click the More link.
  6. This dummy service must always be UP so uncheck the box next to Health Monitoring. Click OK and then click Done.

    add server 127.0.0.1 127.0.0.1
    add service AlwaysUp 127.0.0.1 HTTP 80 -healthMonitor NO
  7. On the left, expand AppExpert and click Responder.
  8. If Responder is not enabled, right-click Responder and click Enable Feature.

    enable ns feature RESPONDER
  9. Under Responder, click Actions.
  10. On the right, click Add.
  11. Give the action a name.
  12. Change the Type to Redirect.
  13. Enter an expression. The following expression can be used by multiple Redirect Virtual Servers since it redirects to https on the same URL the user entered in the browser. Or you can create a Responder Action with a more specific Target. Click Create.
    "https://" + HTTP.REQ.HOSTNAME.HTTP_URL_SAFE + HTTP.REQ.URL.PATH_AND_QUERY.HTTP_URL_SAFE

    add responder action http_to_ssl_redirect_responderact redirect "\"https://\" + HTTP.REQ.HOSTNAME.HTTP_URL_SAFE + HTTP.REQ.URL.PATH_AND_QUERY.HTTP_URL_SAFE" -responseStatusCode 302
  14. On the left, under Responder, click Policies.
  15. On the right, click Add.
  16. Give the policy a name.
  17. Select the previously created Responder action.
  18. For the expression, enter the following. Then click Create.
    HTTP.REQ.IS_VALID

    add responder policy http_to_ssl_redirect_responderpol HTTP.REQ.IS_VALID http_to_ssl_redirect_responderact
  19. Create a Load Balancing Virtual Server with Protocol HTTP and Port 80. The VIP should match an existing SSL Virtual Server or NetScaler Gateway Virtual Server.

  20. Bind the AlwaysUp service and click Bind. Then click Continue.

  21. On the right, in the Advanced Settings column, click Policies.
  22. Click the plus icon in the top right of the Policies box.
  23. Select Responder and click Continue.
  24. Select the http_to_https Redirect Responder policy and click Bind. Then click Done.

    add lb vserver MyvServer-HTTP-SSLRedirect HTTP 10.2.2.201 80
    
    bind lb vserver storefront.corp.com-HTTP-SSLRedirect AlwaysUp
    
    bind lb vserver storefront.corp.com-HTTP-SSLRedirect -policyName http_to_ssl_redirect_responderpol -priority 100 -gotoPriorityExpression END -type REQUEST
  25. The primary advantage of this method is that the Redirect Virtual Server is UP.

Global Server Load Balancing (GSLB) – NetScaler 11.1

Last Modified: Sep 2, 2018 @ 7:52 am

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💡 = Recently Updated

GSLB Planning

GSLB is nothing more than DNS. GSLB is not in the data path. GSLB receives a DNS query, and GSLB sends back an IP address, which is exactly how a DNS server works. The user then connects to the returned IP, which doesn’t even need to be on a NetScaler.

GSLB can do some things that DNS servers can’t do:

  • Don’t give out an IP address unless it is UP (monitoring)
    • If the active IP address is down, then give out the passive IP address (active/passive)
  • Give out the IP address that is closest to the user (proximity load balancing)
  • Give out different IPs for internal users vs external users (DNS View)

GSLB is only useful if you have a single DNS name that could resolve to two or more IP addresses. If there’s only one IP address, then use normal DNS instead.

Citrix Blog Post Global Server Load Balancing: Part 1 explains how DNS queries work and how GSLB fits in.

Citrix has a good DNS and GSLB Primer.

When configuring GSLB, don’t forget to ask “where is the data?”. For XenApp/XenDesktop, DFS multi-master replication of user profiles is not supported, so configure “home” sites for users. More information at Citrix Blog Post XenDesktop, GSLB & DR – Everything you think you know is probably wrong!

GSLB Configuration Overview

GSLB Configuration can be split between one-time steps for GSLB infrastructure, and repeatable steps for each GSLB-enabled DNS name.

One-time GSLB Infrastructure configuration

  1. Create ADNS listener on each NetScaler pair – DNS clients send DNS queries to the ADNS listeners. GSLB resolves a DNS query into an IP address, and returns the IP address in the DNS response.
  2. Create GSLB Sites (aka MEP Listener) – GSLB Sites usually correspond to different datacenters. GSLB Sites are also the IP address endpoints for NetScaler’s proprietary Metric Exchange Protocol (MEP), which is used by GSLB to transmit proximity, persistence, and monitoring information.
  3. Import Static Proximity Database – NetScaler includes a database that can be used to determine the geographical location of an IP address. Or you can subscribe to a geolocation service, and import its database.
  4. Delegate DNS sub-zone to NetScaler ADNS – in the original DNS zone, create a new sub-zone (e.g. gslb.company.com), and delegate the sub-zone to all ADNS listeners.

Repeatable GSLB Configuration for each DNS name:

  1. Create one or more GSLB Services per DNS name, and per IP address response – each GSLB Service corresponds to a single IP address that can be returned in response to a DNS Query.
    • Optionally, bind a Monitor to each GSLB Service. Monitors determine if the GSLB Service is up or not.
  2. Create a GSLB Virtual Server per DNS name
    • Bind a DNS name to the GSLB Virtual Server.
    • For active/active – bind multiple GSLB Services to the GSLB Virtual Server, configure a load balancing method (e.g. proximity), and configure site persistence.
    • For active/passive – bind the active GSLB Service. Create another GSLB Virtual Server with passive GSLB Service, and configure as Backup Virtual Server.
  3. Create CNAME records for each delegated DNS name – in the main DNS zone, create a CNAME that maps the original DNS name to the delegated sub-zone. For example, CNAME citrix.company.com to citrix.gslb.company.com.

You will create separate GSLB Services, separate GSLB Virtual Servers, and separate CNAMEs for each DNS name. If you have a bunch of DNS names that you want to GSLB-enable, then you’ll repeat these steps for each GSLB-enabled DNS name.

Each datacenter has a separate ADNS listener IP address. DNS is delegated to all GSLB ADNS Listener IPs, and any one of them can respond to the DNS query. Thus, all NetScaler pairs participating in GSLB should have the same Per-DNS name configuration.

One NetScaler appliance for both public DNS/GSLB and internal DNS/GSLB?

GSLB can be enabled both publically and internally. For public GSLB, configure it on DMZ NetScaler appliances, and expose the DNS listener to the Internet. For internal GSLB, configure it on separate internal NetScaler appliances/instances, and create an internal DNS listener.

Each NetScaler appliance only has one DNS table, so if you try to use the same NetScaler for both public DNS and internal DNS, then be aware that external users can query for internal GSLB-enabled DNS names. As described by Phil Bossman in the comments, you can use a Responder policy to prevent external users from reading internal DNS names.

add policy patset GSLB_INTERNAL
bind policy patset GSLB_INTERNAL internalHostname.gslb.domain.com -index 1
add responder action DNS_Empty_Response respondwith DNS.NEW_RESPONSE
add responder policy GSLB_DNS_Empty_Response "(!(CLIENT.IP.SRC.IN_SUBNET(10.0.0.0/8)||CLIENT.IP.SRC.IN_SUBNET(192.0.0.0/16)||CLIENT.IP.SRC.IN_SUBNET(172.0.0.0/12)) && DNS.REQ.QUESTION.DOMAIN.CONTAINS_ANY(\"GSLB_INTERNAL\"))" DNS_Empty_Response
bind responder global GSLB_DNS_Empty_Response 100 END -type DNS_REQ_DEFAULT

One appliance resolving a single DNS name differently for internal and public

Let’s say you have a single DNS name citrix.company.com. When somebody external resolves the name, it should resolve to a public IP. When somebody internal resolves the name, it should resolve to an internal IP.

For internal GSLB and external GSLB of the same DNS name on the same NetScaler appliance, you can use DNS Policies and DNS Views to return different IP addresses depending on where users are connecting from. See Citrix CTX130163 How to Configure a GSLB Setup for Internal and External Users Using the Same Host Name.

If the Internet circuit in the remote datacenter goes down, then this should affect public DNS, since you don’t want to give out a public IP that isn’t reachable. But do you also want an Internet outage to affect internal DNS? Probably not. In that case, you would need different GSLB monitoring configurations for internal DNS and external DNS. However, if you have only a single GSLB Virtual Server with DNS Views, then you can’t configure different monitoring configurations for each DNS View.

To work around this limitation, create two separate GSLB Virtual Servers with different monitoring configurations. Internal DNS uses a CNAME record to reach the GSLB Virtual Server configured for internal monitoring:

  • External citrix.company.com:
    • Configure NetScaler GSLB for citrix.company.com.
    • On public DNS, delegate citrix.company.com to the NetScaler DMZ ADNS services.
  • Internal citrix.company.com:
    • Configure NetScaler GSLB for citrixinternal.company.com or something like that.
    • On internal DNS, create CNAME for citrix.company.com to citrixinternal.company.com
    • On internal DNS, delegate citrixinternal.company.com to NetScaler internal ADNS services.

Remote Internet Monitoring

For public DNS/GSLB, you don’t want to give out a remote public IP address if that remote public IP address is not reachable. That means the local NetScaler will need to somehow determine if the remote datacenter has Internet connectivity or not. Here are some methods of verifying the remote Internet connection:

  • Route GSLB Metric Exchange Protocol (MEP) across the Internet. If MEP goes down, then all IP addresses associated with the remote GSLB Site are assumed to be down, and thus the local NetScaler will stop giving out those remote IP addresses.
  • Bind explicit monitors to each GSLB Service, and ensure the monitoring is routed across the Internet.

GSLB IP Addresses

GSLB is separate from data traffic. The GSLB IP addresses are separate from the IP addresses needed for data.

Some GSLB-specific IP Addresses are needed on each NetScaler pair:

  • ADNS Listener IP: A NetScaler IP that listens for DNS queries.
    • The ADNS listener IP is typically an existing SNIP on the appliance.
    • For external DNS, create a public IP for the ADNS Listener IP, and open UDP 53, so Internet-based DNS servers can access it.
    • A single NetScaler appliance can have multiple ADNS listeners – typically one ADNS listener for public, and another ADNS listener for internal.
  • GSLB Site IP / MEP listener IP: A NetScaler IP that will be used for NetScaler-to-NetScaler GSLB communication. This communication is called MEP or Metric Exchange Protocol. MEP transmits the following between GSLB-enabled NetScaler pairs: load balancing metrics, proximity, persistence, and monitoring.
    • GSLB Sites – On NetScaler, you create GSLB Sites. GSLB Sites are the endpoints for the MEP communication. Each NetScaler pair is configured with the MEP endpoints for the local appliance pair, and all remote appliance pairs.
    • TCP Ports – MEP uses port TCP 3009 or TCP 3011 between the NetScaler pairs. TCP 3009 is encrypted.
    • The ADNS IP address can be used as the MEP endpoint IP.
    • MEP endpoint can be any IP – The MEP endpoint IP address can be any IP address and does not need to be a SNIP or ADNS.
    • One MEP IP per appliance – there can only be one MEP endpoint IP address on each NetScaler pair.
    • Route MEP across Internet? – If you route MEP across the Internet, and if the MEP connection is interrupted, then Internet at one of the locations is probably not working. This is an easy way to determine if remote Internet is up or not. If you don’t route MEP across the Internet, then you’ll need to configure every remote-site GSLB Service with a monitor to ensure that the remote Internet is up.
      • Public IPs for MEP Enpoints – if you route MEP across the Internet, then you’ll need public IPs for each publically-accessible MEP endpoint IP address.
      • Public Port for MEP: Open port TCP 3009 between the MEP Public IPs. Make sure only the MEP IPs can access this port on the other NetScaler. Do not allow any other device on the Internet to access this port. Port 3009 is encrypted.
    • GSLB Sync Ports: To use GSLB Configuration Sync, open ports TCP 22 and TCP 3008 (secure) from the NSIP (management IP) to the remote public MEP IP. The GSLB Sync command runs a script in BSD shell and thus NSIP is always the Source IP.
  • Public IP Summary: In summary, for public GSLB, if MEP and ADNS are listening on the same IP, then you need one new public IP that is NAT’d to the DMZ IP that is used for ADNS and MEP (GSLB Site IP).
    • Each datacenter has a separate public IP.
    • DNS is delegated to all public ADNS IP listeners.

ADNS Listener

  1. At System > Network > IPs, identify a NetScaler-owned IP that you will use as the ADNS listener. This is typically a SNIP.
  2. Create a public IP for the ADNS Service IP, and configure firewall rules.
  3. On the left, expand Traffic Management > Load Balancing, and click Services.
  4. On the right, click Add.
  5. In the Basic Settings section, do the following:
    1. Name the service ADNS or similar.
    2. In the IP Address field, enter an appliance SNIP.
    3. In the Protocol drop-down field, select ADNS.
  6. Click OK.
  7. Scroll down and click Done, to close the Load Balancing Service properties.
  8. On the left of the console, expand System, expand Network, and then click IPs.
  9. On the right, you’ll see the SNIP is now marked as the ADNS svc IP.
  10. Repeat ADNS configuration on the other appliance pair in the other datacenter.
  11. Your NetScaler appliances are now DNS servers.

DNS Security

  1. NetScaler 11.1 build 51 and newer includes DNS Security Options at Security > DNS Security, which can protect your ADNS service.
  2. To protect ADNS, set the Profile to All DNS Endpoints.

Metric Exchange Protocol

This section details MEP configuration between two GSLB Sites. See Citrix Docs for larger Parent-Child Topology Deployment using the MEP Protocol, including new features in NetScaler 11.1 build 51 and newer.

GSLB Sites

  1. The local GSLB Site IP can be any IP. Or you can use the same SNIP, and same public IP, used for ADNS.
  2. Open the firewall rules for Metric Exchange Protocol.
  3. On the left, expand Traffic Management, right-click GSLB, and enable the feature.
  4. Expand GSLB, and click Sites.
  5. On the right, click Add.
  6. In the Create GSLB Site page, do the following:
    1. We’re adding the local site first. Enter a descriptive name for the local site.
    2. In the Site Type drop-down, select LOCAL.
    3. In the Site IP Address field, enter an IP that this appliance will listen for MEP traffic. This is typically a DMZ SNIP.
    4. For Internet-routed GSLB MEP, in the Public IP Address field, enter the public IP that is NAT’d to the GSLB Site IP.
    5. For internal GSLB MEP, there is no need to enter anything in the Public IP field.
  7. Scroll down, and click Create, to close the Create GSLB Site page.
  8. Go back to System > Network > IPs, and verify that the IP is now marked as a GSLB site IP.
  9. If you want to use the GSLB Sync Config feature, then you’ll need to edit the GSLB site IP, and enable Management Access.

    1. Scroll down, and enable Management Access. SSH is all you need.
  10. Go to the other appliance pair,and also create the Local GSLB site using its GSLB site IP, and its public IP that is NAT’d to the GSLB site IP.
    1. In System > Network > IPs on the remote appliance, there should now be a GSLB site IP. This could be a SNIP. If GSLB Sync is desired, enable management access on that IP and ensure SSH is enabled.
  11. Now on each appliance add another GSLB Site, which will be the Remote GSLB site.
  12. In the Create GSLB Site page, do the following:
    1. Enter a descriptive name for the remote site.
    2. Select REMOTE as the Site Type.
    3. Enter the other appliance’s actual GSLB Site IP as configured on the appliance. This IP does not need to be reachable.
    4. In the Public IP Address field, enter the public IP that is NAT’d to the GSLB Site IP on the other appliance. For MEP, TCP 3009 must be open from the local GSLB Site IP, to the remote public Site IP. For GSLB sync, TCP 22, and TCP 3008, must be open from the local NSIP, to the remote public Site IP.
  13. Click Create.
  14. Repeat on the other appliance.

RPC

MEP defaults to unencrypted on TCP 3011. To fix that:

  1. On the left, expand System, expand Network, and click RPC.
  2. On the right, right-click the new RPC address (the other site’s GSLB Site IP), and click Edit.
  3. On the bottom, check the box next to Secure.

    1. If your local GSLB Site IP is not a SNIP, then you’ll need to change the RPC Node to use the local GSLB Site IP as the source IP. In the Source IP Address field, enter the local GSLB Site IP.
  4. Click OK when done.
  5. Do the same thing on the other appliance.
  6. If you go back to GSLB > Sites, you should see it as active.

If your MEP connection between GSLB Sites flaps, it might be useful to introduce a delay before remote GSLB Services are marked as Down. In NetScaler 11.1 build 51 and newer:

  1. you can do this at Traffic Management > GSLB, on the right, in the left column, click Change GSLB settings.
  2. In the GSLB Service State Delay Time (secs) field, enter a delay before the GSLB Services are marked as down when MEP goes down.

    set gslb parameter -GSLBSvcStateDelayTime 15

Static Proximity Geo Location Database

If you want to use DNS Policies or Static Proximity GSLB Load Balancing or Responders based on user’s location, import a geo location database.

NetScaler has a built-in database at /var/netscaler/inbuilt_db/ that you can use. Or you can download a database. Common free databases are:

For IP2Location, see the blog post Add IP2Location Database as NetScaler’s Location File for instructions on how to import.

Import Built-in Geo database

  1. In the NetScaler GUI, on the left, expand Traffic Management, expand GSLB, expand Location, and click Static Databases.
  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Change the Import From selection to File.
  4. Click Choose File.
  5. Browse to /var/netscaler/inbuilt_db/, and open Citrix_NetScaler_InBuilt_GeoIP_DB.csv. To browse to the directory, select var, and then click Open. Repeat for each directory until you reach /var/netscaler/inbuilt_db.
  6. In the Location Format field, if using the built-in database, select netscaler, and click Create.
  7. When you open a GSLB Service, the public IP will be translated to a location.

Private IP Blocks

Geo Location databases only contain entries for Public IPs. For Private IPs, do the following:

  1. On the left, expand Traffic Management, expand GSLB, expand Location, and click Custom Entries.
  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Enter a range of IP addresses for a particular location.
  4. Enter a Location Name in Geo Location format, which is typically six location words separated by periods. You can look in the static proximity database for examples.
  5. Click Create.
  6. Continue creating Custom Entries for other private IP blocks.

Use Geo Locations

You can use the Geo locations in a DNS Policy, static proximity GSLB Load Balancing, or Responders:

GSLB Services

GSLB Services represent the IP addresses that are returned in DNS Responses. The IP addresses represented by GSLB Services do not need to be on a NetScaler, but NetScaler-owned IP addresses (e.g. load balancing VIPs) have additional GSLB Site Persistence options (e.g. cookie-based persistence).

  • Each potential IP address in a DNS response is a separate GSLB Service.
  • GSLB Services are associated with GSLB Sites.
  • GSLB Service configuration is identical for active/active and active/passive. GSLB Virtual Server define active/active or active/passive, not GSLB Services.

GSLB should be configured identically on all NetScaler pairs that are responding to DNS queries. Since you have no control over which NetScaler will receive the DNS query, you must ensure that both NetScaler pairs are giving out the same DNS responses.

To create a GSLB Service:

  1. On the left, expand Traffic Management > GSLB, and click Services.
  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. The service name should be similar to the DNS name that you are trying to GSLB. Include the site name in the service name.
  4. Select one of the GSLB Sites. The IP address you’re configuring in this GSLB Service should be geographically located in the selected GSLB Site.
  5. On the bottom part, if the IP address is owned by this NetScaler (Local Site), then select Virtual Servers, and select a Virtual Server that is already defined on this appliance. It should automatically fill in the other fields. If you see a message asking if you wish to create a service object, click Yes. This option is only available when creating a GSLB Service in the Local GSLB Site.

      1. If the IP address is not owned by this NetScaler, then change the selection to New Server, and enter the remote IP address in the Server IP field.
      2. The Server IP field is the IP address that NetScaler will monitor for reachability.
      3. If the remote IP is owned by a different NetScaler that is reachable by MEP, then enter the actual VIP configured on that remote NetScaler. The Server IP does not need to match what is returned to the DNS Query.
  6. In the Public IP field, enter the IP address that will be returned to the DNS Query. If you leave Public IP blank, then NetScaler will copy the Server IP to the Public IP field. For Public GSLB, the Public IP field is usually a Public IP address. For internal GSLB, the Public IP field is usually an internal IP, and probably matches the Server IP.
  7. Scroll up and make sure the Service Type is SSL. It’s annoying that NetScaler doesn’t set this drop-down correctly.
  8. Scroll down and click OK to close the Basic Settings section.
  9. GSLB Service Monitoring – on the right, in the Advanced Settings column, you can click Monitors to bind a monitor to this GSLB Service. Review the following notes before you bind a monitor.

    • Local NetScaler VIP – If the GSLB Service IP is a VIP on the local appliance, then GSLB will simply use the state of the local traffic Virtual Server (Load Balancing, Content Switching, or Gateway). There’s no need to bind a monitor to the GSLB Service.
    • Remote NetScaler VIP – If the GSLB Service IP is a VIP on a remote appliance, then GSLB will use MEP to ask the other appliance for the state of the remote traffic Virtual Server. In both cases. There’s no need to bind a monitor to the GSLB Service.
    • GSLB Monitor overrides other Monitoring methods – If you bind a monitor to the GSLB Service, then MEP and local Virtual Server state are ignored (overridden).
    • Here are some reasons for binding a monitor to the GSLB Service:
      • IP is not on a NetScaler – If the GSLB Service IP is not hosted on a NetScaler, then only GSLB Service monitors can determine if the Service IP is up or not.
      • Monitor remote Internet – For Public DNS, if MEP is not routed through the Internet, then you need some method of determining if the remote Internet circuit is up or not. In that case, you’ll need to bind monitors directly to the GSLB Service. The route of the Monitor should go across the Internet. Or you can ping the Internet router in the remote datacenter to make sure it’s reachable.
      • Traffic Domains – If the GSLB Service IP is in a non-default Traffic Domain, then you will need to attach a monitor, since GSLB cannot determine the state of Virtual Servers in non-default Traffic Domains.
  10. Active/Active Site Persistence – If you intend to do GSLB active/active, and if you need site persistence, then you can configure your GSLB Services to use Connection Proxy or HTTP Redirect. See Citrix Blog Post Troubleshooting GSLB Persistence with Fiddler for more details. This only works with GSLB Service IPs that match Virtual Server VIPs on NetScaler appliances reachable through MEP.
  11. Scroll down, and click Done, to finish creating the GSLB Service.
  12. Create additional GSLB Services for each IP address that will be returned to a DNS query.

Manually Synchronize GSLB Configuration

Copy the GSLB Service Configuration to the remote NetScaler pair. You can either repeat the GUI steps listed above. Or you can do the following:

  1. On the left, expand Traffic Management, and click GSLB.
  2. On the right, click View GSLB Configuration.
  3. This shows you all of the CLI commands for GSLB. Look for add gslb service commands. You can copy them, and run them (SSH) on other NetScaler pairs that are participating in GSLB.

GSLB Virtual Server

The GSLB Virtual Server is the entity that the DNS name is bound to. GSLB Virtual Server then gives out the IP address of one of the GSLB Services that is bound to it.

For Active/Passive GSLB:

  1. Create a GSLB Virtual Server for the Passive IP address.
    1. Bind the Passive GSLB Service to the Passive GSLB Virtual Server.
  2. Create another GSLB Virtual Server for the Active IP address.
    1. Bind the Active GSLB Service to the Active GSLB Virtual Server.
    2. Configure Backup Virtual Server pointing to the Passive GSLB Virtual Server.
    3. Bind a DNS name to the Active GSLB Virtual Server.
  3. Repeat the GSLB Virtual Server configuration on other NetScaler pairs participating in GSLB.
  4. Delegate the DNS name to NetScaler ADNS.

For Active/Active GSLB:

  1. Create one GSLB Virtual Server.
    1. Bind two or more GSLB Services to the Virtual Server.
    2. Configure the GSLB Virtual Server Load Balancing Method – e.g. Proximity
    3. Configure Site Persistence:
      1. Source IP persistence is configured on the GSLB Virtual Server.
      2. Cookie Persistence is configured on the GSLB Services.
    4. Bind a DNS name to the GSLB Virtual Server.
  2. Repeat the GSLB Virtual Server configuration on other NetScaler pairs participating in GSLB.
  3. Delegate the DNS name to NetScaler ADNS.

Configure the GSLB vServer identically on both appliances:

  1. On the left, expand Traffic Management > GLSB, and click Virtual Servers.
  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Give the GSLB vServer a descriptive name. For active/active, you can name it the same as your DNS name. For active/passive, you will create two GSLB Virtual Servers, one for each datacenter, so include Active or Passive in the Virtual Server name.
  4. If you intend to bind multiple GSLB Services to this GSLB vServer, then you can optionally check the box for Send all “active” service IPs. By default, GSLB only gives out one IP per DNS query. This checkbox always returns all IPs, but the IPs are ordered based on the GSLB Load Balancing Method and/or GSLB Persistence.
  5. If you configure GSLB to use Static Proximity Load Balancing Method, a new DNS feature called ECS will contain the actual DNS client IP. This dramatically improves the accuracy of determining a user’s location. Without this setting, GSLB can only see the IP address of the user’s configured DNS server instead of the real client IP.

    set gslb vserver <gslb_vserver> -ECS ENABLED -ecsAddrValidation ENABLED
  6. Click OK.
  7. On the left, click where it says No GSLB Virtual Server to GSLBService Binding.
  8. Click the arrow next to Click to select.
  9. Check the box next to an existing GSLB Service and click Select. If your GSLB is active/passive then only bind one service.
  10. If your GSLB is active/active then bind multiple GSLB Services. Also, you’d probably need to configure GSLB persistence (Source IP or cookies).
  11. Click Bind.
  12. Click OK.
  13. On the left, click where it says No GSLB Virtual Server Domain Binding.
  14. Enter the FQDN that GSLB will resolve.
  15. If this GSLB is active/passive, there are two options:
    • Use the Backup IP field to specify the IP address that will be handed out if the primary NetScaler is inaccessible or if the VIP on the primary appliance is marked down for any reason.
    • Or, create a second GSLB Virtual Server that has the passive GSLB service bound to it. Don’t bind a Domain to the second GSLB Virtual Server. Then edit the Active GSLB Virtual Server and use the Backup Virtual Server section to select the second GSLB Virtual Server.
  16. Click Bind.
  17. Click OK.
  18. In the ADNS Service section, click OK.
  19. If this is active/active GSLB, you can edit the Method section to enable Static Proximity. This assumes the Geo Location database has already been installed on the appliance.
  20. Also for active/active, if you don’t want to use Cookie-based persistence, then you can use the Persistence section to configure Source IP persistence.
  21. Click Done when done.
  22. If you are configuring active/passive using the backup GSLB Virtual Server method, create a second GSLB Virtual Server that has the passive GSLB service bound to it. Don’t bind a Domain to the second GSLB Virtual Server.

  23. Then edit the Active GSLB Virtual Server and use the Backup Virtual Server section to select the second GSLB Virtual Server.


  24. On the left, if you expand Traffic Management > DNS, expand Records, and click Address Records, you’ll see a new DNS record for the GSLB domain you just configured. Notice it is marked as GSLB DOMAIN.

  25. Configure identical GSLB Virtual Servers on the other NetScaler appliance. Both NetScalers must be configured identically. You can also synchronize the GSLB configuration with the remote appliance as detailed in the next section.

GSLB Configuration Synchronization

  1. To manually sync the GSLB configuration from one GSLB Site to another, go to Traffic Management > GSLB.
  2. On the right, in the right column, click Synchronize configuration on remote sites.
  3. Use the check boxes on the top, if desired. It’s usually a good idea to Preview the changes before applying them. Then click OK to begin synchronization.

  4. NetScaler 11.1 build 51 and newer has an automatic GSLB Configuration Sync feature, which automatically syncs the GSLB config every 15 seconds. To enable it on the master appliance, go to Traffic Management > GSLB. On the right, in the left column, click Change GSLB settings.
  5. Check the box next to Automatic Config Sync. Only enable this on the one appliance where you are configuring GSLB and want that GSLB config synced to other appliance.
  6. The automatic sync log can be found at /var/netscaler/gslb/periodic_sync.log.

Some notes regarding GSLB Sync:

  • When syncing GSLB Services, it tries to create LB Server objects on the remote appliance. If the GSLB Service IP matches an existing LB Server object, then the GSLB sync will fail. Check the Sync logs for details. You’ll have to delete the conflicting LB Server object before GSLB Sync works correctly.
  • GSLB Sync runs as a script on the BSD shell and thus always uses the NSIP as the source IP.
  • GSLB Sync connects to the remote GSLB Site IP on TCP 3008 (if RPC is Secure) and TCP 22.

Test GSLB

  1. In NetScaler 11.1 build 51 and newer, you can test GSLB DNS name resolution from the GUI by going to Traffic Management > GSLB, and on the right, in the left column, click Test GSLB.
  2. Select a GSLB Domain Name.
  3. Select an ADNS Service IP, and click Test.
  4. The test performs a dig against the ADNS IP. Verify that the response contains the IP address you expected.
  5. Another method of testing GSLB is to simply point nslookup to the ADNS services, and submit a DNS query for one of the DNS names bound to a GSLB vServer. Run the query multiple times to make sure you’re getting the response you expect.
  6. The NetScaler ADNS services at both GSLB sites should be giving the same response.
  7. To simulate a failure, disable the traffic Virtual Server.
  8. Then the responses should change. Verify on both ADNS services.

  9. Re-enable the traffic Virtual Server, and the responses should return to normal.


DNS Delegation

If you are enabling GSLB for the domain gateway.corp.com, you’ll need to create a delegation at the server that is hosting the corp.com DNS zone. For public GSLB, you need to edit the public DNS zone for corp.com.

DNS Delegation instructions will vary depending on what product host’s the public DNS zone. This section details Microsoft DNS, but it should be similar in BIND or web-based DNS products.

There are two ways to delegate GSLB-enabled DNS names to NetScaler ADNS:

  • Delegate the individual record. For example, delegate gateway.corp.com to the two NetScaler ADNS services (gslb1.corp.com and gslb2.corp.com).
  • Delegate an entire subzone. For example, delegate the subzone gslb.corp.com to the two NetScaler ADNS services. Then create a CNAME record in the parent DNS zone for gateway.corp.com that is aliased to gateway.gslb.corp.com. When DNS queries make it to NetScaler, they will be for gateway.gslb.corp.com and thus gateway.gslb.corp.com needs to be bound to the GSLB Virtual Server instead of gateway.corp.com. For additional delegations, simply create more CNAME records.

This section covers the first method – delegating an individual DNS record:

  1. Run DNS Manager.
  2. First, create Host Records pointing to the ADNS services running on the NetScalers in each data center. These host records for ADNS are used for all GSLB delegations no matter how many GSLB delegations you need to create.
  3. The first Host record is gslb1 (or similar) and should point to the ADNS service (Public IP) on one of the NetScaler appliances.
  4. The second Host record is gslb2 and should point to the ADNS Service (public IP) on the other NetScaler appliance.
  5. If you currently have a host record for the service that you are delegating to GSLB (gateway.corp.com), delete it.
  6. Right-click the parent DNS zone and click New Delegation.
  7. In the Welcome to the New Delegation Wizard page, click Next.
  8. In the Delegated Domain Name page, enter the left part of the DNS record that you are delegating (e.g. gateway). Click Next.
  9. In the Name Servers page, click Add.
  10. This is where you specify gslb1.corp.com and gslb2.corp.com. Enter gslb1.corp.com and click Resolve. Then click OK. If you see a message about the server not being authoritative for the zone, ignore the message.
  11. Then click Add to add the other GSLB ADNS server.
  12. Once both ADNS servers are added to the list, click Next.
  13. In the Completing the New Delegation Wizard page, click Finish.
  14. If you run nslookup against your Microsoft DNS server, it will respond with Non-authoritative answer. That’s because it got the response from NetScaler and not from itself.

That’s all there is to it. Your NetScalers are now DNS servers. For active/passive, the NetScalers will hand out the public IP address of the primary data center. When the primary data center is not accessible, GSLB will hand out the GSLB Service IP bound to the Backup GSLB vServer.

Geo Location Database

If you want to use DNS Policies or Static Proximity GSLB Load Balancing or Responders based on user’s location, import a geo location database.

NetScaler has a built-in database at /var/netscaler/inbuilt_db/ that you can use. Or you can download a database. Common free databases are:

For IP2Location, see the blog post Add IP2Location Database as NetScaler’s Location File for instructions on how to import.

To Download GeoLite Legacy:

  1. Download the GeoLite Country database CSV from http://dev.maxmind.com/geoip/legacy/geolite/.
  2. Note: GeoLite City is actually two files that must be merged as detailed at Citrix Blog Post GeoLite City as NetScaler location database. GeoLite Country doesn’t need any preparation.
  3. Upload the extracted database (.csv file) to the NetScaler appliance at /var/netscaler/locdb.

To import the Geo database (including the built-in database):

  1. In the NetScaler GUI, on the left, expand Traffic Management, expand GSLB, expand Location, and click Static Databases.
  2. On the right, click Add.
  3. Change the Import From selection to File.
  4. Click Choose File.
  5. For the built-in database, browse to /var/netscaler/inbuilt_db/ and open Citrix_NetScaler_InBuilt_GeoIP_DB.csv. To browse to the directory, select var and then click Open. Repeat for each directory until you reach /var/netscaler/inbuilt_db.
  6. Or browse to the Geo Location database file you uploaded and open it.
  7. In the Location Format field, if using the built-in database, select netscaler, and click Create.
  8. If using GeoLite Country, select geoip-country and click Create.
  9. When you open a GSLB Service, the public IP will be translated to a location.

You can use the Geo locations in a DNS Policy, static proximity GSLB Load Balancing, or Responders: